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peace revolution episode 057: how the past affects our future studying history so it doesnt repeat

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**Notes, References, and Links for further study:**

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#. **Reference Map to Episode 057:**
#. (minutes 0-10min) Richard’s introductory monologue
#. (minutes 10-55) `T&H Hosts Corbett Report Radio (week 2), featuring
Tony Myers and Brett Veinotte / Topic: Hegel the
Individual <https://www.tragedyandhope.com/friday-night-live-week-2-th-hosts-corbett...`__
#.       Brett’s site:
`http://schoolsucks.podomatic.com <http://schoolsucks.podomatic.com>`__
#.       Brett’s LIVE Show (Thurs. 10pm Eastern Time):
`http://edu-lu-tion.com/live <http://edu-lu-tion.com/live>`__
#. (minutes 55-1h52m) Infowars Nightly News: “\ `The Government is
Raping
You <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylKWivA3B4M&feature=player_embedded>`__\ ”
an Interview with FBI whistleblower Sibel Edmonds conducted by Alex
Jones (on YouTube)
#. (1h52m-4h51m) Mae Brussell 1979 / `Chronology: How the Past Affects
Our Future <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bX_Jf3BYedY>`__ (on
YouTube)
#. (4h51m-6h13m) School Sucks Podcast `episode
143 <http://schoolsucks.podomatic.com/entry/2012-05-25T16_12_31-07_00>`__:
Logic Saves Lives part 1: Foundation, Attitudes, and Values featuring
Wes Bertrand of the `Complete Liberty
Podcast <http://completeliberty.com/>`__
#.       Wes Bertand (on Amazon): “\ `The Philosophy of
Liberty <http://www.amazon.com/The-Psychology-Liberty-Wes-Bertrand/dp/0738837407>`__\ ”
(2001)
#. (END)
#. **References & Notes for Corbett Report Radio: `Hegel the
Individual <https://www.tragedyandhope.com/friday-night-live-week-2-th-hosts-corbett...`__**
#. **Introduction**

#. **5 W’s**
#. **Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Who)**
#. **German Philosopher (What and Where)**
#. **August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831 (When)**
#. **“I believe that in the course of my own development as a
philosopher, I have recapitulated and give expression to the
“autobiography” of the Absolute.” (Why)**

#. **Historical Context**

#. **Timeline of released works:**
#. The Phenomenology of Mind (1807)
#. The Science of Logic (1812)
#. Philosophy of Right (1821)
#. Logic: Part One -Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences(1830)
#. Philosophy of Nature: Part Two -Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical
Sciences (1817)
#. Philosophy of Mind: Part Three -Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical
Sciences (1830)
#. Lectures on the History of Philosophy (1833) – selections
#. The Philosophy of History: Introduction (1837)
#. Outlines of the Phenomenology (1840)
#. Outlines of the Logic(1840)

#. **Sourced:**

#. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/hege.htm
#. `**www.class.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/hegel310.htm** <http://www.class.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/hegel310.htmGermany>`__
#. http://www.tebyan.net/Events\_History/Historical\_Figures/2003/8/23/25587.html

#. **Hegel’s Influences**

#. `**Friedrich
Hölderlin** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_H%C3%B6lderlin>`__
#. **Idealization of Greeks – Poetry as rift between Religion and
Reason**
#. `**Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
Schelling** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Wilhelm_Joseph_Schelling>`__
#. `**Jean-Jacques
Rousseau** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Jacques_Rousseau>`__\ ****
#. `**Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe>`__
#. `**Friedrich
Schiller** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Schiller>`__
#. `**French Revolution** <https://startpage.com/do/metasearch.pl>`__
#. `**Immanuel
Kant** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Kant>`__

#. **Critique of Pure Reason, Practical Reason, and Judgment**
#. `**Critique of Pure
Reason** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason>`__\ **asked
posited the questions:**
#. How do we know what we know?
#. How is knowledge possible?
#. What can we know?
#. What can we never expect to know?
#. **Kantian limits to reason and knowledge**
#. Kant believed that he had demonstrated that we can only know
the world as it appears to us, and is experienced by us – not
as it is “in itself”. Kant had not only provided a foundation
for knowledge, he had at the same time also set limits to it. –
Source: Introduction Hegel by Lloyd Spencer and Andrzej Krauze

#. The Transcendent
#. **Responses to Kant’s Critiques**

#. `**Johann Gottlieb
Fichte** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Gottlieb_Fichte>`__
#. `**Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
Schelling** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Wilhelm_Joseph_Schelling>`__
#. `**Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
Hegel** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel>`__
#. **All sought to rectify subjective vs. objective knowledge**
#. **Enlightenment vs. Post Enlightenment Thought**
#. **Kant attacked metaphysics and sought to create an inseparable
barrier between Faith and Reason.**
#. **Schelling and Hegel are Lutherans that ascribed to “inner
freedom”. And the French Revolution externalized that “inner
freedom”.**

#. `**German
Idealism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_idealism>`__\ **post
Kant and the Enlightenment**
#. `**Meaning of
Idealism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_idealism#Meaning_of_idealism>`__\ **-**\ The
word "idealism" has more than one meaning. The philosophical meaning
of idealism here is that the properties we discover in objects depend
on the way that those objects appear to us as perceiving subjects,
and not something they possess "in themselves," apart from our
experience of them. The very notion of a "`thing in
itself <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thing_in_itself>`__\ " should
be understood as an option of a set of functions for an operating
mind, such that we consider something that appears without respect to
the specific manner in which it appears. The question of what
properties a thing might have "independently of the mind" is thus
incoherent for Idealism\ :sup:`[*`citation
needed <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed>`__*\ ][`\ lease
clarify"
href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedialease\_clarify">\ *:sup:`clarification
needed`*\ :sup:`]`.
#. **Central theme – the universe as a coherent whole and the role
freedom plays in that conception**
#. **Differences in formulating an underlying principle to Kant’s work**
#. **Spinoza – Sought to show mind and matter as the same basic
substance**
#. **Schelling – The absolute as a “neutral identity” that underlies
both the subject and the object**
#. **Fichte – Philosophical system needs to be based on a single
underlying principle – Absolute Subjectivity – i.e. All reality is a
subjective (mind) whole**
#. **Hegel – The Phenomenology of Spirit**
#. `**Absolute
Idealism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_idealism>`__\ **–
“**\ `Hegel <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G._W._F._Hegel>`__. It is
Hegel's account of how
`being <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Being>`__ is ultimately
comprehensible as an all-inclusive whole. Hegel asserted that in
order for the thinking
`subject <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self_%28psychology%29>`__
(human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its
`object <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_%28philosophy%29>`__
(the world) at all, there must be in some sense an
`identity <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_%28philosophy%29>`__
of thought and being. Otherwise, the subject would never have access
to the object and we would have no certainty about any of our
knowledge of the world. To account for the differences between
thought and being, however, as well as the richness and diversity of
each, the unity of thought and being cannot be expressed as the
abstract identity
"`A=A <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_identity>`__\ ". Absolute
idealism is the attempt to demonstrate this unity using a new
"speculative" philosophical method, which requires new concepts and
rules of logic. According to Hegel, the absolute ground of being is
essentially a dynamic, historical process of necessity that unfolds
by itself in the form of increasingly complex forms of being and of
consciousness, ultimately giving rise to all the diversity in the
world and in the `concepts <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept>`__
with which we think and make sense of the world.
#. `**Master-slave
dialectic** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master-slave_dialectic>`__\ **-**\ The
passage describes, in narrative form, the development of
self-consciousness as such in an encounter between what are thereby
(i.e., emerging only from this encounter) two distinct,
`self-conscious <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-consciousness>`__
beings; the essence of the dialectic is the movement or motion of
recognizing, in which the two self-consciousnesses are constituted
each in being recognized as self-conscious by the other. This
movement, inexorably taken to its extreme, takes the form of a
"struggle to the death" in which one masters the other, only to find
that such lordship makes the very recognition he had sought
impossible, since the bondsman, in this state, is not free to offer
it.It is a story or myth created by Hegel in order to explain his
idea of how self-consciousness dialectically
`sublates <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sublation>`__ into what he
variously refers to as Absolute Knowledge, Spirit, and Science. As a
work the Phenomenology may be considered both as an independent work,
apparently considered by Hegel to be an *a priori* for understanding
the Science of Logic, and as a part of the Science of Logic, where
absolute knowledge is explained.
#. **History as Self-Realization – Patterns where the parts fit the
whole, a fractal**
#. **A pattern of subjective awareness of the pattern towards freedom,
both intrinsically and extrinsically.**
#. **The Hegelian Dialectic**
#. **Attempted to create a new system of logic that would supplant
Aristotle’s deduction syllogism**
#. **Dialectical Thinking –**\ `**Hegelian
dialectic** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegelian_dialectic#Hegelian_dialectic>`__
#. The concept of dialectics was given new life by Hegel (following
Fichte), whose dialectically dynamic model of nature and of history
made it, as it were, a fundamental aspect of the nature of reality
(instead of regarding the contradictions into which dialectics leads
as a sign of the sterility of the dialectical method, as Kant tended
to do in his Critique of Pure Reason).[26][27] In the mid-19th
century, the concept of "dialectic" was appropriated by Marx (see,
for example, Das Kapital, published in 1867) and Engels and retooled
in a non-idealist manner, becoming a crucial notion in their
philosophy of dialectical materialism. Thus this concept has played a
prominent role on the world stage and in world history. In
contemporary polemics, "dialectics" may also refer to an
understanding of how we can or should perceive the world
(epistemology); an assertion that the nature of the world outside
one's perception is interconnected, contradictory, and dynamic
(ontology); or it can refer to a method of presentation of ideas and
conclusions (discourse).
#. According to Hegel, "dialectic" is the method by which human history
unfolds; that is to say, history progresses as a dialectical process.
Hegelian dialectic, usually presented in a threefold manner, was
stated by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus as comprising three dialectical
stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction, an
antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the tension
between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis. Although this
model is often named after Hegel, he himself never used that specific
formulation. Hegel ascribed that terminology to Kant.[28] Carrying on
Kant's work, Fichte greatly elaborated on the synthesis model, and
popularized it. On the other hand, Hegel did use a three-valued
logical model that is very similar to the antithesis model, but
Hegel's most usual terms were: Abstract-Negative-Concrete. Hegel used
this writing model as a backbone to accompany his points in many of
his works. The formula, Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis, does not explain
why the Thesis requires an Antithesis. However, the formula,
Abstract-Negative-Concrete, suggests a flaw in any initial thesis—it
is too abstract and lacks the negative of trial, error and
experience. For Hegel, the Concrete, the Synthesis, the Absolute,
must always pass through the phase of the Negative, that is,
Mediation. This is the actual essence of what is popularly called
Hegelian Dialectics. To describe the activity of overcoming the
negative, Hegel also often used the term Aufhebung, variously
translated into English as "sublation" or "overcoming," to conceive
of the working of the dialectic. Roughly, the term indicates
preserving the useful portion of an idea, thing, society, etc., while
moving beyond its limitations. (Jacques Derrida's preferred French
translation of the term was relever).[29] In the Logic, for instance,
Hegel describes a dialectic of existence: first, existence must be
posited as pure Being (Sein); but pure Being, upon examination, is
found to be indistinguishable from Nothing (Nichts). When it is
realized that what is coming into being is, at the same time, also
returning to nothing (in life, for example, one's living is also a
dying), both Being and Nothing are united as Becoming.[30] As in the
Socratic dialectic, Hegel claimed to proceed by making implicit
contradictions explicit: each stage of the process is the product of
contradictions inherent or implicit in the preceding stage.
#. For Hegel, the whole of history is one tremendous dialectic, major
stages of which chart a progression from self-alienation as slavery
to self-unification and realization as the rational, constitutional
state of free and equal citizens. The Hegelian dialectic cannot be
mechanically applied for any chosen thesis. Critics argue that the
selection of any antithesis, other than the logical negation of the
thesis, is subjective. Then, if the logical negation is used as the
antithesis, there is no rigorous way to derive a synthesis. In
practice, when an antithesis is selected to suit the user's
subjective purpose, the resulting "contradictions" are rhetorical,
not logical, and the resulting synthesis is not rigorously defensible
against a multitude of other possible syntheses. The problem with the
Fichtean "Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis" model is that it implies that
contradictions or negations come from outside of things. Hegel's
point is that they are inherent in and internal to things. This
conception of dialectics derives ultimately from Heraclitus.Hegel has
outlined that the purpose of dialectics is "to study things in their
own being and movement and thus to demonstrate the finitude of the
partial categories of understanding"[31]
#. **Sublation – Aristotle’s law of identity, particular self-identities
in deductive patterns – Hegel sought to dissolve the static view in
favor of a movement towards the whole**
#. **The whole is fractal in nature; i.e. it preserves what it
overcomes.  Therefore, it preserves contradictions as a movement
towards a synthesis.**
#. **Quantum Theory, Postmodern Cosmology, Chaos Theory, Computer
Interfacing, and Ecology, as well as Cybernetics, ascribe to parts
fitting into a whole.**
#. **Sublation is the term that signifies the contradiction of
overcoming and at the same time preserving that which it overcomes.**
#. **Negation -**\ Hegel calls this dynamic aspect of his thinking the
power of "negation". It is by means of this "negativity" of thought
that the static (or habitual) becomes discarded or dissolved, made
fluid and adaptable, and recovers its eagerness to push on towards
"the whole". *Source: Introduction Hegel by Lloyd Spencer and Andrzej
Krauze*
#. Dialectical thinking derives its dynamic of negation from its ability
to reveal "contradictions" within almost any category or identity.
#. Hegel's "contradiction" does not simply mean a mechanical denial or
opposition. Indeed, he challenges the classical notion of static
self-identity, A = A, or A not= non-A.
#. By negation or contradiction, Hegel means a wide variety of relations
difference, opposition, reflection or relation. It can indicate the
mere insufficiency of a category or its incoherence. Most
dramatically, categories are sometimes shown to be
self-contradictory.
#. Three Kinds of Contradiction
#. Being – Nothing / Quantity – Quality
#. Essence – Inner and Outer, Intrinsic and Extrinsic, Implicit and
Explicit
#. Concept – Particularity and Universality, out of which, abstractly,
we see the opposed principles produces a synthesis called
Individuality
#. **Thesis – Antithesis – Synthesis**
#. **Thesis – A thought affirmed which on reflection proves itself
unsatisfactory, incomplete or contradictory…**
#. **Antithesis – Which propels the affirmation of its negation, the
anti-thesis, which also on reflection proves inadequate…**
#. **Synthesis – and so is again negated**
#. **Kant’s Dialectic vs. Hegel’s Dialectic**
#. **Kant’s dialectic logic of transcendent noumena “things in
themselves”, which operates independently of experience**
#. **Hegel’s view contrary to Kant’s transcendent is that of reality as
a totality which gives true knowledge**
#. **Absolute Knowledge -**\ Knowing, for Hegel, is something you do. It
is an act. But it is also presence of mind. Hegel seems to hold out
the vision, even the experience, of thinking as self-presence. Of
being present to, or with, oneself of being fully self-possessed,
self-aware. Of self-consciousness as a huge cosmic accomplishment.
*Source: Introduction Hegel by Lloyd Spencer and Andrzej Krauze*
#. Reading Hegel gives one a sense that the movement of thought will
coincide with a vision of harmony that awaits us at the end of the
whole process. Every serious reader of Hegel can bear witness to the
intoxication of such moments.
#. Absolute Knowledge, in the form of the complete self-consciousness
and self-possession of spirit, is only available at the end-point of
the think process. But there is no distinction possible between the
driving energy of thought and this sense of harmony and fulfilment in
the whole. It is ultimately the universal which has the upper hand.
As Hegel's Logic puts it ...
#. Everything depends on the "identity of identity and non-identity".
#. In philosophy, the latest birth of time is the result of all the
systems that have preceded it, and must include their principles: and
so, if, on other grounds, it deserves the title of philosophy, it
will be the fullest, most comprehensive, and most adequate system of
all.
#. `**Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in
Outline** <http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/ol/encycind.htm>`__
#. **Logic**
#. **Philosophy of Nature**
#. **Philosophy of Mind**
#. `**Philosophy of
Right** <http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/hegel/right.pdf>`__
#. **Moral Subjectivism**
#. **Lectures on the Philosophy of World History**
#. **Lectures on Aesthetics (or the Philosophy of Art)**
#. **Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion**
#. **Lectures on the History of Philosophy**
#. According to Hegel, the will is essentially free. This distinguishes
us from the animals: having purposes and striving deliberately to
achieve them. To possess a will means wanting to be ***free*** and
therefore, to some extene, already being so, But only abstractly. The
realization of freedom – its becoming actual – is as much social as
personal.\ *Source: Introduction Hegel by Lloyd Spencer and Andrzej
Krauze*
#. **The Philosophy of History -**\ *Source: Introduction Hegel by Lloyd
Spencer and Andrzej Krauze*
#. History as showing a pattern, the logic conveys an idea, and that
idea for Hegel is freedom.
#. “So progress in the unfolding of spirit toward freedom is progress in
liberation from subjection to nature”. - Hegel
#. The unfolding of spirit, or freedom, in stages.
#. **The Three Stages of Freedom -**\ *Source: Introduction Hegel by
Lloyd Spencer and Andrzej Krauze*
#. Stage One – the ancient Orient – only one (the ruler) is free.
#. Stage Two – classical Antiquity – some (but not slaves) are free.
#. Stage Three – the Christian-Germanic epoch – begins with the
realization that all should be free, or, as Hegel puts it, that “man
as man is free.”
#. Arriving at the French Revolution and the Enlightenment (Illuminati?)
#. **Philosophies Post Hegel**
#. `**Positivism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positivism>`__\ ****
#. `**Existentialism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existentialism>`__
#. `**Nihilism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nihilism>`__
#. `**Marxism** <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marxism>`__\ **– Property
is not something natural for Hegel, but founded on convention. This
outlined Marx’s justifications for the inequitable distribution of
wealth.**

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graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, and Sussex; AFTER he was a political
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