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The Manhattan Project Building a Nuclear Weapon pack Films and ebooks Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate. There are three existing basic design types. In most existing designs, the explosive energy of deployed devices is derived primarily from nuclear fission, not fusion. Pure fission weapons were the first nuclear weapons built and have so far been the only type ever used in warfare. The active material is fissile uranium (uranium with a high percentage of U-235) or plutonium (Pu-239), explosively assembled into a chain-reacting critical mass by one of two methods: Gun assembly: one piece of fissile uranium is fired at a fissile uranium target at the end of the weapon, similar to firing a bullet down a gun barrel, achieving critical mass when combined. Implosion: a fissile mass of either material (U-235, Pu-239, or a combination) is surrounded by high explosives that compress the mass, resulting in criticality. The implosion method can use either uranium or plutonium as fuel. The gun method only uses uranium. Plutonium is considered impractical for the gun method because of early triggering due to Pu-240 contamination and due to its time constant for prompt critical fission being much shorter than that of U-235. Boosted fission weapons improve on the implosion design. The high pressure and temperature environment at the center of an exploding fission weapon compresses and heats a mixture of tritium and deuterium gas (heavy isotopes of hydrogen). The hydrogen fuses to form helium and free neutrons. The energy release from this fusion reaction is relatively negligible, but each neutron starts a new fission chain reaction, speeding up the fission and greatly reducing the amount of fissile material that would otherwise be wasted when expansion of the fissile material stops the chain reaction. Boosting can more than double the weapon's fission energy release. Staged thermonuclear weapons are essentially a chain of fusion-boosted fission weapons, usually with only two stages in the chain. The secondary stage is imploded by x-ray energy from the first stage, called the "primary." This radiation implosion is much more effective than the high-explosive implosion of the primary. Consequently, the secondary can be many times more powerful than the primary, without being bigger. The secondary can be designed to maximize fusion energy release, but in most designs fusion is employed only to drive or enhance fission, as it is in the primary. More stages could be added and conceptual designs incorporating up to seven have been produced, but the result would be a multi-megaton weapon too powerful to serve any plausible purpose. (The United States briefly deployed a three-stage 25-megaton bomb, the B41, starting in 1961. Also in 1961, the Soviet Union tested, but did not deploy, a three-stage 50–100 megaton device, Tsar Bomba.) Pure fusion weapons - allegedly - have not been invented. Such weapons, though, would produce far less radioactive fallout than current designs, although they would release huge amounts of neutrons. Pure fission weapons historically have been the first type to be built by a nation state. Large industrial states with well-developed nuclear arsenals have two-stage thermonuclear weapons, which are the most compact, scalable, and cost effective option once the necessary industrial infrastructure is built. Most known innovations in nuclear weapon design originated in the United States, although some were later developed independently by other states; the following descriptions feature U.S. designs. In early news accounts, pure fission weapons were called atomic bombs or A-bombs, a misnomer since the energy comes only from the nucleus of the atom. Weapons involving fusion were called hydrogen bombs or H-bombs, also a misnomer since their energy comes mostly from fission. Insiders favored the terms nuclear and thermonuclear, respectively. The term thermonuclear refers to the high temperatures required to initiate fusion. It ignores the equally important factor of radiation pressure, which was considered secret at the time the term became current. Many nuclear weapon terms are similarly inaccurate because of their origin in a classified environment. audio From Major Jordan's Diaries.mp3 ebooks Applied Nuclear Dosimetry.pdf Critical Mass, Real Story of the Birth of the Atomic Bomb by Carter P Hydrick.pdf Engineering with Nuclear Explosives 1964.pdf From Major Jordan's Diaries - The Truth about the US and USSR.pdf From Major Jordan's Diaries.pdf Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics.pdf Handbook of Underwater Nuclear Explosion Effects.pdf How to Build a Nuclear Bomb.pdf Manhattan Project Construction 264p.pdf Manhattan Project History 158p.pdf Manhattan Project History 174.pdf Manhattan Project History 192p.pdf Manhattan Project History 361p.pdf Manhattan Project History 1942 121p.pdf Nuclear Weapons Technology.pdf Operation HARDTACK, Nuclear Weapons, Tests, Military Effects, Studies.pdf Photographs of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945.pdf Rose Paul Lawrence - Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project.pdf Schiffer - Nuclear Weapons of the United States, An Illustrated History.pdf The Effects of Nuclear Weapons, 1977.pdf The Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima.pdf The Manhattan Project, Making the Atomic Bomb.pdf Treatment of Nuclear Radiological Casualties.pdf Unforgettable Fire, Pictures Drawn by Atomic Bomb Survivors, NHK 1977.pdf US Army Cm5206b, Nuclear Weapons Effects.pdf text Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions Nwfaq HTML Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions Nwfaq PDF Baratol.pdf Beryllium.pdf Boron.pdf Explosives - Compounds FAS - Nuclear Weapon Design.pdf How to Build an Atomic Bomb pics.pdf Lithium hydride.pdf Nuclear Weapon Design wikipedia.pdf Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions NWFAQ 401p.pdf US3956039.pdf VT Nuclear Education The History of Nuclear Weapons Design 1945 to 2015 Veterans Today videos Physics - Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics I - What is Radioactivity (IGCSE Physics Revision) (480p).mp4 II - Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation (IGCSE Physics Revision) (480p).mp4 III - Radioactive Half-Life (IGCSE Physics Revision) (480p).mp4 IV - Nuclear Fission and Fusion (IGCSE Physics Revision) (480p).mp4 V - Uses and Dangers of Radiation (IGCSE Physics) (480p).mp4 VI - Rutherford Scattering (Geiger-Marsden) Experiment (IGCSE Physics) (480p).mp4 VII - Hydrogen Bombs (Physics) (480p).mp4 4th Generation Nuclear Weapons (480p).mp4 Aerial view of an atomic bomb explosion (720p).mp4 Atomic Explosion, The story of five atomic bombs (Reels 1-6) (480p).mp4 Basic Physics of an Atomic Bomb 1950 (480p).mp4 Castle Bravo, large thermonuclear hydrogen bomb (480p).mp4 Equinox - A Very British Bomb (360p).mp4 HISTORY OF THE ATOM BOMB, MANHATTAN PROJECT AND ATOMIC POWER 71672 (480p).mp4 HOW IT WORKS Fusion Power (720p).mp4 How Nuclear Weapon Works (480p).mp4 How to Build an Atomic Bomb (360p).mp4 Nuclear 101 How Nuclear Bombs Work Part 12 (480p).mp4 Nuclear 101 How Nuclear Bombs Work Part 22 (480p).mp4 Nuclear Weapons (The History) (480p).mp4 Operation DOMINIC Nuclear Tests 1962.mp4 Physics 10 - Lecture 07 Nukes (360p).mp4 Race for the Superbomb (480p).mp4 The Fourth Protocol nuclear bomb assembly (360p).mp4 The Moment in Time - The Manhattan Project (360p).mp4 What Ever Happened to Nuclear Weapons [31c3] (480p).mp4 tags: atomic, nuclear, nuke, weapon, bomb, fission, fusion, design
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