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World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
10-08-2008, 08:12 PM, (This post was last modified: 10-08-2008, 08:17 PM by ---.)
#46
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
how i love the CAPSLOCK :rolleyes:

I'm not arsing about trying to track down a paper and a specific passage therein you claim exists when you don't provide links or quotes to justify such claims and generally are being obnoxious. have some camomile tea or something - it's good for your gums too, much better than those nasty western chlorine derived chemicals you advocated LOL

anyway,epidemiological models change due to many different environmental factors. "they" are not free of it now though are "they" and DDT has been shown to be the most effective deterrent available - you might ask yourself why it was really banned
Reply
10-08-2008, 08:19 PM,
#47
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
The same reason my uncle just died from pneumonia. Because BACTERIA RULE THE EARTH. You're not as good as scum -- neither am I. antibiotic resistance is the product of stupid-ass scientists -- which ENABLE the economic elite to produce their stupid little conspiracies that you are fixated on. MALL SCIENCE is what you buy but I sell nothing except the truth for free.
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10-08-2008, 08:25 PM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 12:52 PM by ---.)
#48
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Quote:That's all you can do -- post to a former thread which I already responded to. I'd try eating tons of garlic -- maybe you'll get Down Syndrome. Yes that would be an improvement in your I.Q. since I just gave you the link to a CERN page where I posted the below stating that EPIDEMIC DISEASE LIKE MALARIA WAS NOT A PROBLEM FOR 90% OF HUMAN HISTORY:

American Journal of Physical Anthropology

there was fuck all in that paper about malaria that you just re-edited into your post. I'll tell you my IQ if you like but you might be jealous though :freaked:

I haven't seen any evidence from you that "EPIDEMIC DISEASE LIKE MALARIA WAS NOT A PROBLEM FOR 90% OF HUMAN HISTORY:"

Annyway - as I said - things change don't they.. and it IS a problem now irrespective of your claims.

Keep up with the personal insults - I'll just wind you up more with banter - if you've been getting banned all over the place recently maybe you ought to look at your own internal processes and bio-chemical balances(or absence of) at this time.

The link to another thread was actually a juxtaposition to your untempered assault apon all western medicine - I guess you didn't understand that
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10-08-2008, 08:27 PM,
#49
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Quote:The same reason my uncle just died from pneumonia. Because BACTERIA RULE THE EARTH. You're not as good as scum -- neither am I. antibiotic resistance is the product of stupid-ass scientists -- which ENABLE the economic elite to produce their stupid little conspiracies that you are fixated on. MALL SCIENCE is what you buy but I sell nothing except the truth for free.

I'm sorry you lost your uncle.


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10-08-2008, 08:28 PM,
#50
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Seriously -- you continue lag behind me in citations. THE LAST CITATION I GAVE IS BASED ON SEARCHING THE REFERENCE IN THE FIRST EDITED POST ON EPIDEMICS. Is that too hard to figure out or maybe you have the below biochemical imbalance due to lack of neuromelanin:

Can't handle the loud music? Maybe that's why you're an introvert! Where's the jump in logic in this study or do we really need a middle ear acoustic reflex to justify the difference in behavior? Maybe the answer is why white scientists with lack of neuromelanin would feel the psychological need to find justification for their passive agressive (repressed sex, oppressive technology) personalities.

Titre du document / Document title
Introversion and individual differences in middle ear acoustic reflex function
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
BAR-HAIM Yair (1) ;
Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Psychology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, ISRAEL

Résumé / Abstract
23+.0+63/A growing body of psychophysiological evidence points to the possibility that individual differences in early auditory processing may contribute to social withdrawal and introverted tendencies. The present study assessed the response characteristics of the acoustic reflex arc of introverted-withdrawn and extraverted-sociable individuals. Introverts displayed a greater incidence of abnormal middle ear acoustic reflexes and lower acoustic reflex amplitudes than extraverts. These findings were strongest for stimuli presented at a frequency of 2000 Hz. Results are discussed in light of the controversy concerning the anatomic loci (peripheral vs. central neuronal activity) of the individual differences between introverts and extraverts in early auditory processing.
Revue / Journal Title
International journal of psychophysiology ISSN 0167-8760 CODEN IJPSEE
Source / Source
2002, vol. 46, no1, pp. 1-11 (1 p.1/2)
Langue / Language
Anglais

Editeur / Publisher
Elsevier Science, Shannon, IRLANDE (1983) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords
Human ; Stimulus frequency ; Reflex arc ; Middle ear ; Personality ; Reflex ; Acoustic stimulus ; Extraversion introversion ;

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10-08-2008, 08:36 PM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 12:56 PM by ---.)
#51
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Quote:Seriously -- you continue lag behind me in citations. THE LAST CITATION I GAVE IS BASED ON SEARCHING THE REFERENCE IN THE FIRST EDITED POST ON EPIDEMICS. Is that too hard to figure out or maybe you have the below biochemical imbalance due to lack of neuromelanin:

Can't handle the loud music? Maybe that's why you're an introvert! Where's the jump in logic in this study or do we really need a middle ear acoustic reflex to justify the difference in behavior? Maybe the answer is why white scientists with lack of neuromelanin would feel the psychological need to find justification for their passive agressive (repressed sex, oppressive technology) personalities.

Titre du document / Document title
Introversion and individual differences in middle ear acoustic reflex function
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
BAR-HAIM Yair (1) ;
Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Psychology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, ISRAEL

Résumé / Abstract
23+.0+63/A growing body of psychophysiological evidence points to the possibility that individual differences in early auditory processing may contribute to social withdrawal and introverted tendencies. The present study assessed the response characteristics of the acoustic reflex arc of introverted-withdrawn and extraverted-sociable individuals. Introverts displayed a greater incidence of abnormal middle ear acoustic reflexes and lower acoustic reflex amplitudes than extraverts. These findings were strongest for stimuli presented at a frequency of 2000 Hz. Results are discussed in light of the controversy concerning the anatomic loci (peripheral vs. central neuronal activity) of the individual differences between introverts and extraverts in early auditory processing.
Revue / Journal Title
International journal of psychophysiology ISSN 0167-8760 CODEN IJPSEE
Source / Source
2002, vol. 46, no1, pp. 1-11 (1 p.1/2)
Langue / Language
Anglais

Editeur / Publisher
Elsevier Science, Shannon, IRLANDE (1983) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords
Human ; Stimulus frequency ; Reflex arc ; Middle ear ; Personality ; Reflex ; Acoustic stimulus ; Extraversion introversion ;

LOL'Lag behind'? Avoid dealing so in convolution, more like .now you're just ranting pure shite at me brother - and tbh it would appear that you are unwittingly trying to adopt the guise of a 'white western scientist' in a desperate grasp to find a grouding from which to assail me in this twitching attempt to humiliate me. Do you think it has worked? laughable.


look up the term - irony followed by - hypocrisy

keep it coming if you need - i'm on the board for a bit. Basically it just seems like you want to try and say 'I am much more intelligent than you' - what a supremacist crock of an attitude to foster,Drew. In combination with your blatant recorded history of a pronounced tendency for exotic quasi-othering - it doesn't bode well. Good luck with working that out.
Reply
10-08-2008, 08:50 PM,
#52
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Not only have I "looked up" irony but I've read WHOLE BOOKS ON IRONY. Here's my conspiracy synposis of irony: THE I-thought runs the "Y" thought with the "Y" being the three of the tetrad and the "I" being the number 1 translated into geometric magnitude using left-brain axiomatic logic, thereby creating Western Science as globalcide. My approach to western science is to "know thy enemy." You have the same MALL SCIENCE bourgeois approach in your political critique just as you do in your use of science -- a passive aggressive, lack or neuromelanin approach. There is no pure science and our "choices" are limited by symmetric-based mathematics (be it elections or money or technology). For example the highway system in the U.S. is based on the need for the military to intervene due to a nuclear catastrophe, say at a power plant, which in turn can not be regulated at any reasonable level since it's military. Mall Science. The internet, cell phones -- it's the tantric trajectory of technology. Gotta go a perv just sat next to me and my computer time is up.
Reply
10-08-2008, 09:05 PM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 01:00 PM by ---.)
#53
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Quote:Not only have I "looked up" irony but I've read WHOLE BOOKS ON IRONY. Here's my conspiracy synposis of irony: THE I-thought runs the "Y" thought with the "Y" being the three of the tetrad and the "I" being the number 1 translated into geometric magnitude using left-brain axiomatic logic, thereby creating Western Science as globalcide. My approach to western science is to "know thy enemy." You have the same MALL SCIENCE bourgeois approach in your political critique just as you do in your use of science -- a passive aggressive, lack or neuromelanin approach. There is no pure science and our "choices" are limited by symmetric-based mathematics (be it elections or money or technology). For example the highway system in the U.S. is based on the need for the military to intervene due to a nuclear catastrophe, say at a power plant, which in turn can not be regulated at any reasonable level since it's military. Mall Science. The internet, cell phones -- it's the tantric trajectory of technology. Gotta go a perv just sat next to me and my computer time is up.

you forgot to look up - hypocrisy

You have no conception of what my political critique is. I know some of what yours is from reading at GNN and I also know what comments you got LOL - and tbh I tend to agree with those people when I think about it now.

I certainly hope there isn't a disaster at a power plant in the pipeline.

It's a good tekken spoof - mall science v's pseudo science

I don't 'use' science - I merely disagreed with your supposition - and you became pretty aggressive and abusive. no problem, 'no one's perfect' I remember someone saying.

it was a pleasure :rolleyes:

now the thread can get back on topic hoffentlich
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10-09-2008, 01:06 AM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 01:12 AM by drew hempel.)
#54
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Yes stupid-ass scientists. Please confirm my thesis by your feces. O.K. NIK -- what's your take on the Russian claim that CERN has already altered the Earth's orbit?

http://www.amazon.com/Uncle-Johns-Presents...1045&sr=1-5
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10-09-2008, 02:03 AM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 02:21 AM by drew hempel.)
#55
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Why scientists are stupid-asses (and DDT):

http://www.brainsturbator.com/articles/net...ion_of_control/

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/book...canpests10.html
Reply
10-09-2008, 10:49 AM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 08:36 PM by ---.)
#56
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Quote:Why scientists are stupid-asses (and DDT):

http://www.brainsturbator.com/articles/net...ion_of_control/

http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/book...canpests10.html

The brainsturbator article is very interesting Drew but the rest, as pertaining, to your anti DDT stance is bullshit - I can't believe your citing a msm piece with quotes from Rachael Carson's 'Silent Spring" as a rebuff to the use of DDT to curb the Malarial epidemic across sub Saharan Africa and much of the global south. Bullshit, comanchero!!

I guess if you had power - you'd prevent the African countries that have broken the ban and now use it again to protect their populaces.
Do your research right and find out about 'silent spring' and just how factually correct her assertions were - and DDT is affecting the breeding patterns of the Mosquito - the host - not the parasite they carry.

When I was fortunate enough to travel in the tropics and meet people from all manner of backgrounds, including villages who had only recently had made first contact - one thing I noticed whilst I continued to take massive does of doxycyclene antibiotics to ward off the threat of cerebal malaria infection - one thing I noticed was how sad it was the amount of children who had caught it and been struck down and those that survived were basically brain damaged to an extent that they would have to have carers in the village for the rest of their life...the only people I met who had contracted it and survived relatively okay were western missionaries who had had access to antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals - and they were glad of that access,believe you me - as you would to, friend if you contracted cerebral malaria - I knew a guy from Manchester called James who was from a sound system collective and who caught it in Africa last year and died - his myspace page is sad. so get to know more about what you're talking about with this subject,like I have tried to do. as said before - DDT - ever considered it was banned as an indirect method of culling non-white populations?

Unless you manage to get a hold of the premise that constructive, known to be successful, interventions like DDT cannot be dismissed offhand due to the fact of having the capacity to save over a million lives per year - unless you can dig that and stop bleating from a pseudo intellectual position more concerned with adopting a staunch contrary outlook than ANYTHING else - just stop spouting shit - your conception of everything being reduced to a very basic polemic here is nonsense - and clearly comes from a COSSETTED SPOILT WESTERN MINDSET that doesn't actually know shit about what it's like in the global south imho
Reply
10-09-2008, 10:59 AM,
#57
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Quote:Yes stupid-ass scientists. Please confirm my thesis by your feces. O.K. NIK -- what's your take on the Russian claim that CERN has already altered the Earth's orbit?

I think David Booth is web based cointelpro - why the plug for a book unrelated to your question?
Reply
10-09-2008, 11:34 AM, (This post was last modified: 10-09-2008, 08:33 PM by ---.)
#58
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
War Against Malaria Can Be [partially]*Won, Without DDT (*my insertion)
By César Chelala Oct 6, 2008


A boy runs away pinching his nose as he and other homeless are wrapped in a cloud following fumigation to prevent an epidemic of malaria at a refugee center in El Salvador. (Yuri Cortez/AFP/Getty Images)
NEW YORK—Malaria continues to be endemic in the developing world, causing more than one million deaths every year, mostly among children living in Sub-Saharan countries. Because of the ongoing failure to develop a truly effective vaccine against malaria, the major public health intervention remains focused on controlling the mosquito vector of the parasite that causes the disease. And, just as it has for decades, mosquito control relies in the main on the use of the insecticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.)

While highly effective in controlling the mosquito population, there are serious drawbacks to the use of DDT.

The good news is that the results of a new project carried out in Mexico and Central America show that the fight against malaria does not have to depend on using DDT. In Mexico and the Central American countries, it is estimated that around 108.7 million people live in areas that are environmentally favorable to the transmission of malaria, and 35 percent of them are at high risk of contracting the disease.

The need to continue to rely on DDT to effectively combat malaria has been the subject of a long running discussion. Although DDT spraying has long been successfully used in controlling the mosquito population and the spread of malaria, it easily enters the food chain and persists for many years in the environment. The result is often serious harm to wildlife. In addition, the mosquito population under attack can become resistant to DDT, making necessary the search for alternatives.

Since 2004, a project funded by UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program) and GEF (Global Environmental Facility) has been carried out with the technical support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Panama. It was developed based on the strategies outlined in the Roll Back Malaria approach championed by the World Health Organization.

This project was initially implemented in Mexico and subsequently it was adopted—with changes according to local circumstances—in the Central American countries. Critical to its success have been the use of public health measures aimed at controlling the mosquito breeding and standing sites, rapid diagnosis and treatment of those affected with malaria, and active community participation.

Public health measures against malaria had already shown their effectiveness in Central America. During the construction of the Panama Canal, which had been abandoned by the French in 1889 due to financial scandals and the high numbers of workers’ deaths due to malaria and yellow fever, thousands of lives were saved thanks to public health measures implemented by Dr. William C. Gorgas, from the U.S. Army Medical Corps.

Similar public health measures in the Mexico/Central America project include participatory community treatment of larval breeding sites, improving housing conditions, periodical clearing of vegetation around the houses, and elimination of stagnant water deposits near the houses. These actions are complemented by a wide array of educational interventions aimed at improving knowledge about malaria transmission, and rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment of those affected in the community.

Early detection and treatment is critical to eliminate the parasite carriers. An important aspect of this project has been the collaboration of voluntary community health workers who are taught to make an early diagnosis in situ and to administer complete courses of treatment not only to those affected but also to the patients’ immediate contacts.

The project was carried out in specific pilot areas called “demonstration areas” which had been selected due to their high levels of malaria transmission. In those areas, the number of malaria cases fell 63% from 2004 to 2007. In several demonstration areas I visited in Honduras and Mexico as a consultant for the Pan American Health Organization malaria had practically been eliminated. Plans are underway to expand the project to other regions where malaria remains a serious threat.

One of the advantages of not using DDT (besides avoiding its toxic effects) is the enormous savings realized from discontinuing its routine use. These savings can now be put to good use with other diseases.

Although DDT can still be used in some countries or regions with extremely high levels of malaria infection, the fact that an effective campaign against malaria can be waged without it, and at much lower cost, raises hopes that this approach can be used as time goes on by a wide range of developing countries not only in the Americas, but in Africa and Asia as well.

Dr. César Chelala is an international public health consultant.

Last Updated
Oct 6, 2008

There you go DH - you'll note the report I cite is very current. A viable alternative apparently to DDT then, [consigning it to a fall back option - that's great, I think] ( not applicable for Sub Saharan areas though) - the programme inherently still reliant on Western Medicine - go figure -_-
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10-09-2008, 02:22 PM,
#59
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Shiva's Cosmic Dance at CERN
http://www.fritjofcapra.net/shiva.html


[Image: shiva_statue.jpg][Image: shiva_shadow.jpg]

Shiva the Destroyer Presides Over Big Bang Mock Up

Satyeen Mohapatra
Hindustan Times
September 10, 2008

COMMENT: One eerie parallel here to elites who always have to play god is that here, at the CERN site is a statue of Shiva the god of destruction & transformation– after the atomic bomb was first tested (Trinity, referring to divinity), the Manhattan project manager Robert Oppenheimer made an unsettlng comment comparing the new weapon of mass destruction with the god Vishnu who ‘had become Death, destroyer of worlds’

The symbolism is strong. As scientists at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva smash subatomic particles in the world’s largest experiment, Shiva, the destroyer, will be in close proximity.

On Wednesday, a powerful particle accelerator will use massive energy surges to simulate the universe’s creation with the Big Bang. And it would not have been possible without India, says Dr Amit Roy, director, Nuclear Science Centre, Delhi. “We’ve made precision-made jacks on which the 27-km machine is resting.”

Over 100 Indian scientists from institutes like the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Bhabha Atomic Energy Centre are involved in the Large Hardron Collider (LHC) project.

The Department of Atomic Energy gifted a two-metre bronze statue of the Nataraja to CERN on June 18, 2004 to celebrate the centre’s India connection.

Indian Atomic Energy Commission boss Anil Kakodkar had then said: “The Indian scientific community is part of the quest for understanding the universe.”

Author Fritjof Capra first drew a parallel between Shiva’s dance of creation and destruction and the dance of subatomic particles in The Tao of Physics.

A plaque next to the statue quotes Capra: “Modern physics has shown that the rhythm of creation and destruction is not only manifest in the turn of the seasons and in the birth and death of living creatures, but is also the very essence of inorganic matter. For modern physicists… Shiva’s dance is the dance of subatomic matter.”

Watch the clip of J. Robert Oppenheimer, head of the Manhattan project, comparing their new weapon of mass death with the god Vishnu who ‘became Death, destroyer of worlds.
&Alice laughed, &There's no use trying,& she said: &one can't believe impossible things.& &I daresay you haven't had much practice,& said the Queen. &When I was your age I always did it for half-an-hour a day. Why, I've believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.&
- Lewis Carroll

&Things are seldom as they seem ... Skim milk masquerades as cream.&
- Gilbert and Sullivan (Pinafore)

At NASA, it really is rocket science, and the decision makers really are rocket scientists.
But a body of research that is getting more and more attention points to the ways that smart people working collectively can be dumber than the sum of their parts. .. Irwin Janis? &Groupthink:& is a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' striving for unanimity override realistic appraisals ? It is the triumph of concurrence over good sense, and authority over expertise.&
-John Schwartz & Matthew L. Wade
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10-09-2008, 06:50 PM,
#60
World's biggest experiment to unlock secrets of Big Bang could cause the end of the world
Well NIK I appreciate you sharing some personal sincerity:

Journal of Medical Entomology, 2006

Operational Impact of DDT Reintroduction for Malaria Control on Anopheles arabiensis in Mozambique

M. Coleman1,2,3, S. Casimiro4, J. Hemingway2, and B. Sharp1

With the increase in indoor residual spraying in many internationally and nationally funded malaria control programs, and affirmation by World Health Organization (WHO) that DDT is appropriate for use in the absence of longer lasting insecticide formulations in some malaria endemic settings, DDT has been reintroduced as a major malaria control intervention in Africa. Indoor residual spraying with DDT was reintroduced into Mozambique for malaria control in 2005, and it is increasingly becoming the main insecticide used for malaria vector control in Mozambique. The selection of DDT in Mozambique is evidence-based, taking account of the susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) and Anopheles gambiae (Giles) s.s. to all the available insecticide choices, as well as relative costs of the insecticide and the logistical costs of spraying. Before this time in Mozambique, DDT was replaced by λ-cyhalothrin in 1993. Resistance occurred quickly to this insecticide, and in 2000 the pyrethroid was phased out and the carbamate bendiocarb was introduced. Low-level resistance was detected by biochemical assay to bendiocarb in 1999 in both Anopheles funestus (Giles) and An. arabiensis, although this was not evident in WHO bioassays of the same population. In the 2000–2006 surveys the levels of bendiocarb resistance had been selected to a higher level in An. arabiensis, with resistance detectable by both biochemical and WHO bioassay. The insecticide resistance monitoring program includes assessment of field populations by standard WHO insecticide susceptibility assays and biochemical assays. Monitoring was established in 1999, and it was maintained as part of an operational monitoring and evaluation program thereafter.

Keywords: Anopheles, insecticide resistance, management, Mozambique

Received: July 16, 2007; Accepted: April 4, 2008

DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[885:OIODRF]2.0.CO;2

1 Malaria Research Programme, Medical Research Council, Ridge Rd., Durban, South Africa.

2 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, United Kingdom.

3 Corresponding author, e-mail: mcoleman@liverpool.ac.uk.

4 National Institute of Health, Av. Eduardo Mondlane/Salvador Allende, P.O. Box 264, Maputo, Mozambique.

DDT is one of the most controversial insecticides. Its introduction in 1943 for malaria control (Gahan et al. 1945) was widely acclaimed, reducing morbidity and mortality from malaria in naïve troops serving in malaria-endemic regions in World War II and rapidly being introduced for national malaria control campaigns in many endemic regions. In addition to its public health applications, enormous tonnages of DDT were used for agricultural purposes worldwide.

The ill-fated World Health Organization (WHO)-led malaria eradication campaign (1955–1969) was built on the twin pillars of DDT-based control of the insect vectors and chloroquine treatment of malaria cases. Although this campaign had many notable successes, eradicating malaria from several countries and dramatically reducing transmission in others (Trigg and Kondrachine 1998), its ultimate failure was largely due to the lack of political will and logistical application. Issues of resistance to DDT in the insect vectors and resistance to chloroquine in the parasites is often cited as major reasons for the campaign’s failure, but there is little real data to support this claim (Payne 1987, Coleman et al. 2006).

Environmental issues with DDT also became a major issue. Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” (Carson 1962) was a seminal work publicizing and politicizing the negative effects of the accumulation of DDT and its metabolites in the food chain. The insecticide also proved extremely stable in the environment contaminating water tables and remaining in soil samples long after it had been deployed on crops.

The Persistent Organic Pollution Treaty (POPs) (http://www.pops.int) sought international agreement to restrict or ban the use of persistent pollutants. DDT was recognized within the classes of compounds to be controlled, but the beneficial public health effects, specifically for malaria control, where its long residual life in indoor residual spraying (IRS) with limited environmental exposure were recognized. DDT was banned through the POPs treaty for all uses with the exception of malaria control, although its use in residual spraying has declined since the 1970s with the introduction of the more rapidly acting pyrethroids.

Resistance to DDT was first noted just 11 yr after its introduction (WHO 1957). Because DDT resistant insects were usually fully susceptible to the pyrethroids, this class of insecticides replaced DDT in many malaria control programs. As pyrethroid resistance started to develop, many control programs attempted to revert back to DDT as the insecticide of choice. However, because these insecticide classes share a common target site in the sodium channel (Soderlund and Bloomquist 1989), cross-resistance had developed to both insecticide classes in many locations due to a mutation in the target site (kdr) (Martinez-Torres et al. 1998, Ranson et al. 2000). The spread of pyrethroid resistance may be critical for sustainability of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), because this is currently the only insecticide group recommended for impregnation.

Two other classes of insecticides carbamates and organophosphates (Coosemans and Carnevale 1995, Walker 2000) are available for mainstream malaria control programs. Their short half-lives, resulting in two to three rounds of IRS per year, combined in some instances with their expense, can make these insecticides too costly for most malaria control programs despite fewer reports of resistance (Coleman et al. 2006).

Historically the National Malaria Control Program in Mozambique (MNMCP) has used insecticides for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) and Anopheles gambiae (Giles) s.s. DDT was sprayed from 1946 to 1988 with no obvious manifestation of DDT resistance in either vector, either measured directly from sporadic bioassays or implied from increases in malaria transmission. In 1993, there was a change in policy, and the pyrethroid λ-cyhalothrin replaced DDT for IRS.

Before 1999, there was no systematic collection of entomological information on the susceptibility levels of An. arabiensis or An. gambiae to any insecticide in Mozambique. In 1999, Maputo province, southern Mozambique, became part of the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative (LSDI), a trinational (South Africa, Swaziland, and Mozambique) malaria control program to control malaria (Sharp et al. 2007). As part of this project, an insecticide susceptibility baseline was established, and a high level of pyrethroid resistance was detected in Anopheles funestus (Giles) with lower levels detectable in An. arabiensis in Maputo province (Casimiro et al. 2006a,B). This resulted in a policy change, and the carbamate bendiocarb replaced lambda cyhalothrin in 2000. Because dependence on the use of a single insecticide class in the long-term was likely to be problematic, an effective resistance monitoring and management strategy needed to be developed to relieve the selection pressure on bendiocarb. Cost reduction also was an issue (Conteh et al. 2004). In September 2006, DDT was reintroduced for IRS for malaria control in southern Mozambique. At this time, no resistance to DDT had been detected in Mozambican vectors (Casimiro et al. 2006a,B). The insecticide susceptibility profile continued to be monitored operationally in the two major vectors in this region. This article reports the change from insecticide resistance baseline recorded between 2000 and 2006, against the background of increased insecticide use for antimalarial purposes in Mozambique.
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