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The Global Bee Death.
03-25-2010, 10:52 AM,
#1
The Global Bee Death.
by Dan Winter

March 11, 2010

from FractalField Website





We know that fractality is medically defined as the quality in your heart (HRV) which statistically predicts how long you will survive.



We now know this principle of measuring HARMONIC INCLUSIVENESS - is the way fractality can be measured in EVERY LIVING THING- TO PREDICT ITS SURVIVAL:

*

applies to forests ( Bioacoustic Habitat Theory)
*

voice analysis (Signature Sound Works, Biosonica, Biowaves.com etc)
*

AND BY EXTENSION- it follows that harmonic inclusiveness - measuring FRACTALITY- can be used accurately, scientifically- to predict the viability / survival of EVERY LIVING THING ( atoms, babies, galaxies, .. the Dodeca - Universe etc etc..)

SO- now lets apply that to DNA.



Do you know what would be the DEATHLY OPPOSITE of harmonic inclusiveness or FRACTALITY in DNA?

THAT... would be... MONOCULTURE - A PHILOSOPHY OF DEATH FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION in all of DNA.

SO, who has brought monoculture to this planet?

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Monsanto (more than 300,000 references to MONSANTO as 'the EVIL COMPANY') has brought you
*

Agent Orange - persistent ghost from the Vietnam war
*

PCB's (more than 198,000 references to PCB Poison)
*

aspartame poisoning ( more than 1,700,000 references to Aspartame Poison)
*

and monoculture! - the single most essential cause of most every pestilence known to modern agriculture
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GMO cotton which measurably kills the soil microorganisms and takes 10 times more water
*

GMO soy- which turns the rats balls blue (before they die)- when eaten
*

and now... Monsanto brings you: The Global Bee Death





Science has been relatively clear in predicting how few are the years between when the bees die and when the humans follow them. It appears now that the honey bees are pretty well on their way to extinction- in the majority of the globe.

Up till now it was considered something of a mystery as to who killed them.

New scientific evidence is now emerging to explain very clearly the sequence of steps - between Monsanto's marketing of GMO corn - and the death of the bees. Here far below, please find the paper - with abundant references.

The global bee die off did not reach Brazil for example until just after they let in Monsanto's GMO corn. Now it is Australia's turn. That is one of the few places in the world which still has healthy bees. The test is whether they will follow the foolish lead of Brazil in letting in GMO corn. So please, will you forward this paper to your government and URGE them to get Monsanto's bee killer GMO CORN, OUT of your country.

Here is the deadly sequence of steps which created our global funeral for the bees:

1.

1. Monsanto decides- that since the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis - kills a corn parasite- to insert the DNA sequence from that bacteria IN to their GMO corn.

2.

The BT in the corn pollen causes an immune system response (rather like triggering a sneeze) in the bees- similar to if they had eaten the BT directly - also causes holes and porosity in the gut.

3.

During the summer- the bees have enough protein to tolerate the immune 'sneeze' response- and still learn navigation ... BUT during the winter when protein ( pollen) is in rather short supply in the hive- bees had evolved a survival response. IF a bee's immune system was threatened in Winter - then the hive was best served if it was eliminated. The way this works - is that the protein normally invested in learning and remembering complex navigation requirements- has gone into immune reaction- and so - those bees - immune challenged - get lost trying to get back to the hive. (Rather like the older people of the Eskimo's who simply don't show up at the next igloo in the march - during Winter).

4.

This accounts for the facts:
1.

CCD - Colony Collapse Disorder was originally called: Fall Dwindle Disease - because the bee disappearance almost always is worst just as Winter sets in.
2.

It also explains why the few dead bees who are found- have the same blackened & porous guts- like bees responding directly to the BT.
3.

It also explains why the global bee die-off generally followed the spread of GMO corn.


Action required

1.

Circulate this WIDELY
2.

Demand your universities and government replicate the proof- measure the immune response of bees to GMO corn pollen - vs non GMO - note how HARD this is to do now that Monsanto's GMO corn has completely and illegally swept thru Mexico for example - simply by pollen drift
3.

Run, don't walk - to demand your country eliminate GMO corn - before it is too late!











COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS
by Peter Olson BA. Dip Ed.
Original version published in The Northern Star

NSW, Australia

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Genetically modified (GM) crops often contain a bacterium called Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt)
*

Most of the research on Bt has looked at the directly lethal affects of Bt and little research has looked for indirectly lethal affects the Bt
*

Some insects have been shown to survive the Bt poison by having a strong immune response to the Bt poison. (Ref R)
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Insects generally and Bees specifically, have been shown to experience learning impairment and memory disorder, if they have an immune response. (Ref A1, B, D, E)
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A learning impairment or memory disorder would mean that Bees could not navigate back to their beehive
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Thus, a learning impairment or memory disorder is lethal to a foraging Bee
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Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of Bees, was originally called Fall Dwindle Disease, meaning the disease occurred in the cold months of the year
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Bees use protein to construct a memory and their protein comes from pollen, but in winter there is no pollen
*

Bees also use protein to achieve an immune response, so an immune response in winter, means all protein reserves are rapidly used up and none are left for memory formation. (Ref D)

Have you ever noticed that when you are sick, that you can't think quickly and clearly? It's a bee gets sick and can't think probably, it will not be able to return to its beehive.

Studies listed below show that learning in bumblebees is impaired, if the bumblebee has an immune response (Ref A1,B,D,E).

The insecticide Bt is incorporated into many genetically modified crops and Bt causes an immune response to a wide range of creatures in nature, even if it does not kill those creatures. (Ref Q,R,S)

It is a virtual certainty that the bumblebee does have an immune response to the Bt present in the pollen of genetically modified plants.

Bees only carry enough honey with them to fly directly to the target flowers and straight back to the beehive. The navigation to and from those flowers is extremely complex and so requires the bee to have a very good memory. Since learning and memory are impaired in bees that have an immune response, bees with an immune response get lost, run out of honey fuel, fall to the ground and are then are carried away by ants. Thus, if a bee gets lost, for even a few minutes, it is dead.

The Encyclopedia Britannica states of CCD that,

"it appears that the disorder affects the adult bees' ability to navigate". (Ref Y)

Thus suggesting that worker bees fly out from the high hive to collect food, but get lost and never return.

In the case of the viruses and pathogens that have been suggested as causes of CCD, those viruses and pathogens result in large numbers of dead bees either inside or outside of the beehive. Dead bees are found outside the hive, because worker bees carry dead bees outside.



In CCD, the symptoms are that no dead bees are found inside or outside the beehive, rather all the,

"worker bees from a beehive or European honey bee colony abruptly disappear" (Ref V).

One of the most common traits inserted into man-made genetically modified crops is resistance to caterpillars, which is given by inserting a gene for a naturally occurring insecticidal bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).



In crops that are genetically modified to contain this Bt gene, the Bt will be present not only in the plants leaves and fruit but also in the pollen of the flowers. Thus Bees that take pollen from genetically modified crops are ingesting significant quantities of Bt insecticide. Many scientists have assured the public that Bt is safe, because Bt is not directly lethal to Bees.



However alcohol is also not directly lethal to a car driver, yet many car drivers have died from alcohol, even though alcohol is not directly lethal to a car driver. Scientists looking for a cause for CCD have generally looked for a direct cause, something such as virus or parasite, that is directly killing the bees. Discovering an indirect cause of mortality in bees, would be much more difficult and would only occur after scientists had first exhausted examining the most probable direct causes of mortality in bees.



A review of the literature shows that at the time of writing, according to Cox Foster et al 2009,

"no single culprit has been identified" as the cause of CCD (Ref Z3).

German research (Ref C), showed that bees who were fed Bt were not killed by the Bt, but that they became greatly more susceptible to a subsequent disease challenge.



The Jenna University study showed that mortality in Bees exposed to a parasite, was far greater in Bees that had previously been fed BT, compared to Bees that were not previously fed BT (Ref C). Meaning that BT increased the susceptibility of Bees to the pathogen and thus Bt multiplied the mortality caused by the pathogen.



In regard to that increased mortality from a pathogen combined with Bt ingestion, the authors concluded,

"the significant differences indicate an interaction of toxin and pathogen on the epithelial cells of the honeybee intestine. The underlying mechanism which causes this effect is unknown" (Ref C).

This is a highly significant finding because when GM crops containing BT were being approved, the universal assumption was, that GM crops containing Bt would be totally safe, because Bt has no effect on bees. Thus government scientists who approved GM Bt crops, would clearly have objected to those crops, if they thought that GM crops containing Bt would adversely affect bees.

In the USA, Cox Foster et. al. state of the CCD bee colonies that they studied,

"we hypothesized that something had compromised the bees' immune system, making them susceptible to any number of infections that healthy colonies would normally fend off" (Ref Z3).

This sounds quite similar to the Jenna University findings above. Furthermore, Cox Foster et. al. note that their Bee autopsies found symptoms never observed before, such as scar tissue in the internal organs (Ref Z3).

Bt is a living bacterium, that forms crystals of proteinaceous insecticidal endotoxins, whose mode of action is to form a pore or hole in the insect's gut cell membranes (Ref Z2).



Since the mode of action of BT is to damage the gut lining and since Cox Foster et al. found scar tissue in the internal organs of Bees, the question must be asked, was the damage to the internal organs of Bees that Cox Foster et. al. found, caused by the Bt in the pollen of GM crops, that the bees ate?



Cox Foster et al. 2006 noted during the autopsies,

"when wet mounts were examined they appeared to have crystalline arrays" and that "Crystal-like formations were observed in the thorax" (Ref Z4).

Bt toxins are crystalline.

Cox Foster et al. 2009, did consider the possibility that bees with CCD may have been poisoned by pollen from genetically modified crops. However the authors refer to earlier research, showing that the Bt toxin is only activated in certain insects and they note that the Bt toxin does not work in the digestive tracts of honeybees (Ref Z3).



Thus because of prior research showing that bees are not killed by Bt, and that BT cannot possibly effect bees, many bee scientists have avoided testing Bt on Bees, believing such testing has already taken place and have thus ruled out GM Bt as possible cause of CCD of Bees. The online encyclopedia Wikipedia takes a very different view however and does list GM crops as a possible cause of CCD (Ref V).

Testing for subtle, sub-lethal effects or synergistic affects of Bt with other organisms, where Bt is a cofactor, rather than a singular causative agent, has only been done recently. Where such testing has been done, the finding of sub-lethal effects or cofactor effects, was often by chance, rather than planned.



It was only by chance that the bees in the above mentioned Jena University study became infected with a parasite and thus only by chance that the scientists observed the synergistic effect, of combining a pathogen and Bt. The results of a growing number of studies, now show clear and substantial, non-lethal effects and cofactor affects, of Bt on Bees; a dramatic change from the previous scientific view, that Bt has no effect on Bees.

Even so, the non-lethal effects and cofactor affects of Bt on Bees still remain scantily studied and more research on these subtle kinds of affects is urgently required.

Ramirez et. al. 2008, tested Bt toxin on honeybees and discovered substantial non-lethal affects on the bees, including "disturbed learning performances".



Ramirez et al. concluded:

"Our results show that transgenic crops expressing (Bt) Cry1Ab protein at 5,000ppb may affect food consumption or learning processes" in Bees (Ref B).

The honeybee depends upon an unusual array of complex learning processes, in order to successfully find its food and navigate back to the beehive.



Unlike a car driver who may not remember exactly where the car is parked, in a large parking lot and who can afford to take some time to find the car, the honeybee cannot afford to forget, even for a short time, exactly where the beehive is located, even if the hive is several miles away. Memory impairment is not lethal to humans, but memory impairment and learning impairment is indeed lethal to honeybees. Thus in addition to causing increased disease susceptibility, BT is also shown to produce cognitive impairment in Bees.

It is important to note that BT is not the only insecticidal that has been shown to cause cognitive impairment in Bees.



Cox Foster et al. mentioned in 2006, that Neonicotinoid insecticides can produce sub-lethal effects, such as learning impairment and that as a result of a such learning impairment, Bees "may not be able to learn the location of the hive" (Ref Z4) and may thus may be unable to navigate back to the hive.



So one can now see, a proven trend, of learning impairment in Bees, caused by insecticide exposure at a sub-lethal dose. Cox Foster et al. 2006 clearly state what happens when Bees eat pollen contaminated with sub-lethal doses of neonicotinoid insecticides.

"If bees are eating fresh or stored pollen contaminated with these chemicals at low levels, they may not cause mortality but may impact the bee's ability to learn or make memories" (Ref Z4).

That sounds very similar to the above reference from Ramirez et al. 2008 who found "disturbed learning performances" in Bees after consumption of GM Bt pollen (Ref B). So the learning impairment in Bees, induced by consumption of insecticidal GM Bt pollen, can be seen as part of a larger trend for sub-lethal doses of certain insecticides, to produce learning impairment in Bees.

The difference between a neonicotinoid insecticide spray and the Bt insecticide in a genetically modified crop, is that the former is very easy to restrict or recall, whereas the latter may prove impossible to recall. With genetic materials, the quantity of GM material in existence gets bigger as time passes. If a problem develops with a GM crop, then that problem will likely increase as time passes.

The fact that CCD can be transmitted by beehive equipment could be to do the presence of the Bt bacterium in that beehive equipment and and the fact that Cox Foster et. al. were able to break the cycle of CCD by irradiating the beehive equipment (Ref Z) and restocking with a new supply of Bees, could be due to the fact that the Bt bacterium was killed by the irradiation.

In order to understand CCD, or the disappearance of bees, one needs to understand something about the specialized lifestyle of the bee. In order to save weight and increase performance, bees only carry enough fuel (honey) to fly directly to the target flowers and then straight back to the beehive. If a bee gets lost, or encounters unexpected head-winds, it will not have enough fuel reserves to make it back to the beehive. Instead it will fall to the ground and die.



Ants will then carry the dead bee down into the ant nest.

Memory is also crucial to bees because a bee has to learn from other bees in the beehive, where the target flowers are located. The Bee must memorize the directions from the hive to the target flower and back again, so a perfect memory is essential for the survival of bees. Other insects like mosquitoes are less reliant on a good memory, and simply "follow their nose" to the food - whereas bees rely on memorizing complex navigation tasks and memorizing specific aromas (Ref F), to find specific food and then to find their way back to the beehive.



If one was to impair the learning or memorizing ability of bees, that would cause indirect mortality in bees, since they would not be able to find their way back to the hive.

GM Bt pollen is widely known not to kill bees directly, but was not tested prior to the release of GM Bt crops, for the ability of GM Bt pollen to kill bees indirectly, through impairing the memory of Bees.

There is scientific agreement that many different things can be lethal to Bees - such as disease, chemical sprays and even certain seed coatings.

In the Flour Moth Ephestia kuehniella, a non lethal response to Bt and "tolerance (of Bt) correlates with an elevated immune response" to the Bt. (Ref R). For 99.99 percent of creatures, such a non-lethal immune response to Bt is of no practical significance and because of this, Bt is referred to as "soft" and is used widely in organic agriculture.



There is however one particular species that is very unusual, in that it has a life threatening response, to sub-lethal immune stimulation (Refs B, D, E) and that species is the Bee. Immune response in Bees, can lead to memory loss and learning impairment (Ref B,D,E) and as previously stated, loss of memory would cause bees to forget where the beehive is located.



Bees are insects and an,

"immune response inhibits associative learning in insects" (Ref E).

Bees are now eating GM Bt pollen and Bt is toxin known to cause a non-lethal immune response in a wide variety of creatures (Ref Q,R,S).

Bees use up protein in memory formation and they also use up protein if they have an immune response (Ref D). Bees only protein source is pollen and if pollen is in short supply and bees have an immune response, they will use all available protein for the immune response, leaving none available for memory formation (Ref D).



Pollen for bees is in short supply during Autumn and Winter, so if bees have an immune response when pollen is in short supply, they will lose their memory (Ref D). CCD was originally called Fall Dwindle Disease, meaning loss of bees in the Autumn, when pollen from flowers is in short supply. If bees loose their memory, they lose their navigational skills, they fail to find their way back to the beehive, they fall to the ground, die and get carried away by ants and are never seen again.



As mentioned above, the loss of memory due to an immune response, is not confined to Bees, but occurs in insects generally.

"The cost of an immune response (in insects) therefore not only affects survival of the host…. but also everyday behaviour and memory formation" (Ref E).

This learning impairment was only discovered recently (Ref E), long after GM crops had already been planted, however the effects of the GM Bt crops will go on for millions of years, since, like other introduced foreign species, GM crops can not be recalled.

During discussions with various Bee scientists, the writer was unable to find any scientist who had ever heard that insects and Bees loose their memory if they have an immune response. Perhaps the reason they did not know, is because the discovery of an immune - memory relationship in insects is very recent.



There is no evidence of direct mortality in bees from exposure to GM Bt crops, yet there is substantial evidence of sub-lethal effects in Bees from such exposure, that can result in high indirect mortality of Bees. If every air plane pilot had a sudden, non-lethal lapse of memory, there would be chaos which could cause in high mortality. Similar chaos occurs for Bees if they have a sudden lapse in memory, caused by an immune response and coincident pollen protein deprivation (Ref D).

When speaking to a PhD at a Gene Regulator's office, that PhD scientist described some of the information herein as "new" and not previously known by that Gene Regulator. Scientists that wish to defend GM Bt crops, need to counter the proven scientific evidence of indirect mortality in Bees that is provided herein, rather than simply stating that GM Bt pollen is not directly lethal to Bees.

Bt toxins produce sub-lethal effects in Bees and those sub-lethal effects result in changes in the Bee's "feeding behavior", "learning processes" and "foraging efficiency" (Ref B). Behavior change is evidence of learning impairment, and learning impairment can lead to lethal situations for Bees in the field - navigation problems and reduced flower finding abilities (Ref F), which are dependent on a perfect memory.

The different kinds of toxic GM Bt crystalline proteins are designated with different letters; Cry1A, Cry2A, Cry3A, etc.



Scientists in Mexico discovered that,

"the Bt toxin Cry1Ab caused reduced foraging activity in bees after they were fed with syrup containing the toxin" (Refs A, A1).

Something new is being put into the Bee's environment; something which is herein shown to impair the Bees functions and to increase their mortality from diseases such as parasites (Ref C).



Bees do not simply go out and look for any flower. They learn and memorize the aroma and location of a specific flower while in the hive, then they fly directly to that specific flower's location (Ref F). Memory impairment would thus prevent Bees from finding a specific flower's location and similarly prevent Bees successful return to the hive.

It is crucial to understand that with CCD, dead Bees are seldom found in or near the hive.



When Bees are attacked by the lethal Bee mite,

"thousands of dead bees will pile in front of the hive" (Ref U), as a result of infestation.

In the case of CCD however, few if any dead Bees are ever found in or around the hive.



Hence although Varroa mite is a serious disease of Bees, its symptoms do not match the symptoms of CCD. Also, the timing of Varroa mite infestation does not match the timing of CCD appearance. Varroa first entered Japan in 1960's, Brazil in 1971, France in 1982 and the USA in 1987 (Ref T), but CCD was first noticed in USA around 2004, and in Europe about 2006, many, many years after Varroa arrived, but only shortly after GM crops were widely planted.



The writer does not wish to rule out other possible causes for CCD, because the intent is to simply demonstrate that GM Bt crops may harm Bees, regardless of whether they are the sole cause CCD or not.



It took decades to show that cigarette smoking was harmful and it could take just as long to gain consensus over the cause of CCD. It is simpler to suggest GM Bt pollen causes Bee memory loss (Ref D, E). That memory loss occurs when Bees have an immune response and are deprived of pollen (Ref D).

The German Speigel article states that the bacterial toxin in the genetically modified corn may have "altered the surface of the bee's intestines, sufficiently weakening the bees to allow the parasites to gain entry" (Ref C).



Wikipedia says that the mode of action of Bt through making pores or holes in the gut lining (Ref T) and such holes caused by Bt, would obviously allow the parasites a new and easy pathway into the Bee. Is it not logical, that Bt exposure in the wild, would cause a similar, significant increase in mortality from parasites, like Microsporidia, just as it did in the trials (Refs A2, C)?

Bees are a key species for human food supply and bio-diversity and several lethal risks to Bees from GM Bt pollen are demonstrated here.

Britain's chief scientist Sir David King, once proudly stated that Genetically Modified (GM) crops "could solve third world hunger". Later he admitted that his claim was wrong (Ref M) and in fact the real outcome would appear to have been the exact opposite of his prediction. Now that GM crops have been widely planted and hence can not be recalled, we learn that GM crops actually produce significantly lower yields than natural varieties do.



A large American study showed that,

"modified soya produces 10 per cent less food than its conventional equivalent" (Ref O).




REFERENCES

NB: References with a PMID number can be found at the US National Library of Medicine website below, by simply typing the PMID number in the search box and hitting the enter key. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&TabCmd=Limits


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Ref A.
ISIS Press Release 26/04/07
Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and Prof. Joe Cummins (Ontario Univesity)
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/MysteryOfDisappearingHoneybees.php
Mystery of Disappearing Honeybees - Quote: "The Bt toxin Cry1Ab caused reduced foraging activity in bees after they were fed with syrup containing the toxin"

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Ref A1
Ramirez-Romero R, Chaufaux J and Pham-Delègue M.
Effects of Cry1Ab protoxin, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on the foraging activity and the learning performances of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a comparative approach Apidologie 2005, 36, 601-11.

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Ref A2
The effects of Bt maize pollen on the honeybee, 2001-2004 Jena University, GMO Safety, Federal Ministry of Education and Research,
http://www.gmo-safety.eu/en/safety_science/68.docu.html
http://www.gmo-safety.eu/en/oilseed_rape/honey_bees/339.docu.html
http://www.gmo-safety.eu/en/safety_science/195.docu.html

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Ref B.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008 Jan 16
Does Cry1Ab protein affect learning performances of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?
Ramirez-Romero R, Desneux N, Decourtye A, Chaffiol A, Pham-Delègue MH.
Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Km. 2.5 Carretera Antigua a Coatepec No. 351 El Haya, 91070 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
The tested concentrations of Cry1Ab protein did not cause lethal effects on honey bees. However, honey bee feeding behavior was affected when exposed to the highest concentration of Cry1Ab protein, with honey bees taking longer to imbibe the contaminated syrup. Moreover, honey bees exposed to 5000ppb of Cry1Ab had disturbed learning performances. Our results show that transgenic crops expressing Cry1Ab protein at 5000ppb may affect food consumption or learning processes and thereby may impact honey bee foraging efficiency.
PMID: 18206234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Ref C.
http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,473166,00.html
University of Jena, Germany, 2004
Spiegel Online International: March 22, 2007


o

COLLAPSING COLONIES
Are GM Crops Killing Bees?
By Gunther Latsch
quote: "when, by sheer chance, the bees used in the experiments were infested with a parasite... a "significantly stronger decline in the number of bees" occurred among the insects that had been fed a highly concentrated Bt poison feed."
According to Hans-Hinrich Kaatz, a professor at the University of Halle in eastern Germany and the director of the study, the bacterial toxin in the genetically modified corn may have "altered the surface of the bee's intestines, sufficiently weakening the bees to allow the parasites to gain entry -..."


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Ref D
Brain Behav Immun. 2006 Mar;20(2):135-8. Epub 2005 Aug 9.
Insect psychoneuroimmunology: immune response reduces learning in protein starved bumblebees (Bombus terrestris).
Riddell CE, Mallon EB.
Department of Biology, University of Leicester, UK.
There is evidence that protein is intricately involved as this immune induced reduction in memory only becomes apparent after the bees are deprived of pollen (their only protein sources)".
PMID: 16084688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Ref E
Proc Biol Sci. 2003 Dec 7;270(1532):2471-3.
Immune response inhibits associative learning in insects.
Mallon EB, Brockmann A, Schmid-Hempel P.
Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zürich, ETH-Zentrum NW, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
Here, we present behavioural evidence indicating a link between the immune system and the nervous system in insects. The cost of an immune response therefore not only affects survival of the host, as previously shown, but also everyday behaviour and memory formation.
PMID: 14667337 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Related Links
Insect psychoneuroimmunology: immune response reduces learning in protein starved bumblebees (Bombus terrestris).

[Brain Behav Immun. 2006] PMID:16084688

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Ref F
Social learning of floral odors inside the honeybee hive. [Proc Biol Sci. 2005]
PMID:16191598

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Ref G
Science and Development Network News
Mexico confirms GM maize contamination
Katie Mantell 19 April 2002
http://www.scidev.net/News/index.cfm?fuseaction=readNews&itemid=145&language=1
Quote: The Mexican government has confirmed earlier reports that transgenic maize is growing within the country's borders and has apparently contaminated wild varieties, despite a national ban on the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. A government-commissioned study has shown that as many as 95 per cent of maize fields in the Mexican states of Oaxaca and Pueblo contain evidence of GM 'contamination'.

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Ref H
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horizontal_gene_transfer
Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring.
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/isisnews/i-sisnews5.php#hori

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Ref I
The only human clinical trial showed that transgenes from soy transfer into intestinal bacteria.
Netherwood, et al (2 February 2004) Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract, Nature Biotechnology, Vol 22 Number.

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Ref J
Nature,November 29 issue 2001,
David Quist and Ignacio Chapela, University of California
Quote: "showed that DNA from GM maize had been found in wild varieties" Lateral Gene Transfer.

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Ref K
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 9;104(41):16204-8. Epub 2007 Oct 8.
Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems.
Rosi-Marshall EJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, Whiles MR, Evans-White M, Chambers C,
Griffiths NA, Pokelsek J, Stephen ML.
Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60626, USA.
erosi@luc.edu

We show that corn byproducts, such as pollen and detritus, enter headwater streams and are subject to storage, consumption, and transport to downstream water bodies Laboratory feeding trials showed that consumption of Bt corn byproducts reduced growth and increased mortality of nontarget stream insects. Stream insects are important prey for aquatic and riparian predators, and widespread planting of Bt crops has unexpected ecosystem-scale consequences.

PMID: 17923672 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Ref L
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/rhodcv/hort410/genint/ge00001.htm
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA

*

REF M
Scientist who claimed GM crops could solve Third World hunger admits he got it wronghttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/technology/technology.html?in_article_id=503339&in_page_id=1965&ito=1490
18 December 2007

*

Ref O
The Independent. Exposed: the great GM crops myth
Jeoffrey Lean 20/04/2008

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Ref Q
Mol Immunol. 2007 Feb;44(6):1209-17. Epub 2006 Aug 22.
Analysis of the cellular immune response induced by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A
toxins in mice: effect of the hydrophobic motif from diphtheria toxin.
Guerrero GG, Russell WM, Moreno-Fierros L.
Universidad Nacional de México.
Insecticidal Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis elicit strong humoral immune response in mice.
PMID: 16930715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

*

Ref R.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=365683#id2782119
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 March 2; 101(9): 2696-2699.
Published online 2004 February 20.
Quote: We present evidence that tolerance to a Bt formulation in a laboratory colony of the flour moth /Ephestia kuehniella/ can be induced ….. and that the tolerance correlates with an elevated immune response.

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Ref S
http://www.ehponline.org/members/1999/107p575-582bernstein/bernstein-full.html
Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 107, Number 7, July 1999
Immune Responses in Farm Workers after Exposure to Bacillus Thuringiensis Pesticides
Leonard Bernstein, Jonathan A. Bernstein, Maureen Miller, Sylva Tierzieva,1 David I. Bernstein, Division of Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, USA. Quote: Exposure to Bt sprays may lead to allergic skin sensitization and induction of IgE and IgG antibodies

*

Ref T
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_thuringiensis

*

Ref U
http://beelab.osu.edu/factsheets/sheets/varroa_mites.htm
Dr. James E. Tew, Associate Professor of Entomology, Beekeeping Consultant
quote: Colonies can die so fast from high Varroa infestations that thousands of dead bees will pile in front of the hive.

*

Ref V
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_Collapse_Disorder

*

Ref W
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17736738

*

Ref X
http://www.i-sis.org.uk/agrobacteriumAndMorgellons.ph

*

Ref Y
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1348211/colony-collapse-disorder

*

Ref Z
Science 12 October 2007:Vol. 318. no. 5848, pp. 283 - 287
A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder
Diana L. Cox-Foster Et Al

*

Ref Z2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_thuringiensis

*

Ref Z3
Solving the Mystery of the Vanishing Bees
Scientific American Magazine - March 31, 2009
Cox-Foster D. and vanEngelsdorp D.

*

Ref Z4
Fall Dwindle Disease: A preliminary report
December 15, 2006 Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Diana Cox Foster, Maryann Frazier, Nancy Ostiguy, Jerry Hayes,
CCD Working Group, The Pennsylvania State University

Return to Dan Winter

Return to Genetically Engineered Foods

Return to 'Who' or 'What' is Killing The Bees?

Return to Monsanto - A Multinational Factory of Death
Reply
03-25-2010, 09:13 PM,
#2
RE: The Global Bee Death.
Excellent post i8manu. I was torn between the BT, the Electromagnetic and the fungus theory on this one but it seems, from the summarization you have presented the most prevalent cause of this crisis, not to discount the other factors. It has been estimated by some that up to 90% of our biodiversity of our edible crops are tied to the honey-bee through their assistance in pollination. Mass extinction is quite plausible if the honey bee was removed from the ecological equation.

Like the article states POST THIS EVERYWHERE! This could be a key point to bring down Monsanto and force the development of GM food to be more prudent in light of the profound and dire consequence.

Original article: http://www.fractalfield.com/savethebees/
Reposted at (more readable IMO): http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_bees06.htm
Digg It: http://digg.com/environment/Global_Bee_Deaths_Evidence_Points_to_Monsanto_GMO_Corn
There are no others, there is only us.
http://FastTadpole.com/
Reply
03-26-2010, 12:11 AM, (This post was last modified: 03-26-2010, 12:12 AM by ToddTraf.)
#3
RE: The Global Bee Death.
Is all this fuss about the "European" Honey Bee? I see no distinction in most research indicating that this is a multi-species event. North America, South america etc survived finewithout them for 1000's of years. I think it Jamestown had the first European honeybees brought over for farming purposes.
Reply
03-26-2010, 12:27 AM,
#4
RE: The Global Bee Death.
Thanks i8manu, I think I'll send this to all our MP's for starters.
An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does truth become error because nobody sees it.
Mohandas Gandhi


Each of us is put here in this time and this place to personally decide the future of humankind.
Did you think you were put here for something less?
Chief Arvol Looking Horse
Reply
03-30-2010, 07:14 AM,
#5
RE: The Global Bee Death.
This is very interesting and Latest news. If the bees die, we die. Universal health care, whether or not your president is a communist, these are things that become increasingly difficult to mull over when you're Dying of starvation.
Reply
11-17-2011, 01:35 PM,
#6
RE: The Global Bee Death.
No one.. really? Well let's try to put this puzzle together then here are some pieces.. from ConCen a couple threads.

From: Disappearing Bees
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=20608

... German research has long shown that bees' behaviour changes near power lines.

The parasites, wildlife and other bees that normally raid the honey and pollen left behind when a colony dies, refuse to go anywhere near the abandoned hives.

It could possibly even have something to do with GM crops(?) Some of the new GM crops have their own pesticide "built-in" to their DNA for example.

From: Colony Collapse - It's the Pesticides Stupid
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=32240

Christopher Mullin of Pennsylvania State University in University Park and his colleagues describe widespread pesticide tainting in 749 samples of bee-dom, some of those chemicals at levels that would be toxic if they occurred alone. Except that most bees aren’t exposed to just a single pesticide.

In beeswax, they report, “87 pesticides and metabolites were found with up to 39 different detections in a single sample.” The average number of pesticides identified per wax sample (and they analyzed 259 samples): eight. Among 350 pollen samples retrieved from hives, each harbored an average of seven such chemicals – but at times up to 31 pesticide contaminants (or their breakdown products, some of which are far more toxic to bees than the parent chemical would have been).

From: Paralyzing virus a suspect in disappearing bee mystery
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=14303

Entomologists have pointed to a wide range of potential explanations for CCD blaming everything from heavy pesticide use, to genetically modified crops, and even radiation from mobile phones.

By comparing the gene fragments they found against the recently published honeybee genome sequence, Pettis and his colleagues quickly spotted the presence of foreign DNA belonging to the Israeli acute paralysis virus.

Among all the pathogens they identified, only IAPV was tightly linked to colony collapse the virus appeared in all of the 30 colonies devastated by CCD, but only one of the apparently healthy colonies.

The varroa mite, which is prevalent in the US, weakens the immune system of bees, perhaps making them susceptible to IAPV.

If there aren't any bees to help with pollination of plants, and thus the fertilization and production of seeds. Then will this ultimately result in the reliance on GM seeds (such as the 'terminator seed') produced by a private company, just so we can provide ourselves with food.



There is far more depth to read on this and I don't want to bias anything by not putting all the cards on the table as I can't even begin to put forth all the good information posted by fellow ConCen members.

Who Killed The Honey Bee - BBC (2009)
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=38686

EPA Complicit in Colony Collapse Disorder?
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=36488

Honeybees 'entomb' hives to protect against pesticides, say scientists
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=39608

1.1 Million Bee Colonies Dead This Year
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=9225

Suddenly, The Bees Are Simply Vanishing
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=18489

Are Mobile Phones Wiping Out Our Bees?
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=20602

Organic Bees Are Thriving
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=19579

Evidence Growing To Support Gm Crops Killing Off Honeybees
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=20187

What do you think?
There are no others, there is only us.
http://FastTadpole.com/
Reply
05-20-2012, 09:38 PM,
#7
RE: The Global Bee Death.
Quote:Heart of the Matter – Ingram Gets His Day In Court - Three Weeks Late
By Tom Kocal | Prairie Advocate News

APRIL 27, 2012, APPLE RIVER, IL – The little town of Apple River in northeast Jo Daviess County, Illinois is the hometown of a big man - Terrence IIngram. Though not big in a physical sense, when it comes to saving the American Bald Eagle, there is hardly anyone in the United States held in higher regard than Ingram. His years of documented research and expertise regarding eagles and the work of the Eagle Nature Foundation, founded by Ingram, is in great part responsible for the bald eagle being removed from the “Threatened Species List “ in the United States.

Unfortunately, it was not his knowledge of eagles that the Illinois Department of Agriculture sought when they paid an unannounced visit to his home in March. It was his bees.





In the March 21, 2012 issue, The Prairie Advocate published a news release from Ingram that reported the theft of $5000 of his bees and bee hives on March 14. Ingram said that before they left had left for their granddaughter’s wedding in Texas, the hives had been cleaned and made ready for new spring swarms.

I received a phone call from an area County Farm Bureau manager about the article, asking how I had come across the information. He knew that the equipment was not stolen, but “destroyed” by the Illinois Department of Agriculture (IDofA). The hives were infected with foulbrood, and Ingram was doing nothing about it.

It was not until during a hearing at the IDofA in Springfield on April 4th that Ingram found out who “the culprit” was. The hearing, held 3 weeks after the IDofA removed most of his bees and hives from his property, was to determine whether or not Ingram had American Foulbrood in his hives.

There are 2 questions that Ingram wants answered:

1) Did the IDofA, a state agency, have the right to enter Ingram’s property and confiscate a suspected “nuisance,” before Ingram had his day in court?

2) Where are his bees? The “evidence” has disappeared, and the IDofA refuses to tell Ingram where they are, before, during, and after the hearing.

“I have been keeping bees for 58 years,” Ingram said during an interview at his home and apiary. “I am not a newcomer to beekeeping, and I definitely know what I am doing. I have been teaching beginning beekeeping classes for 40 years. In fact, it was my recommendation to some of my students who wanted to keep getting together to form a club. Today, the Stateline Beekeepers Association is one of the largest in the state.”

A timeline of events

In the summer of 2011, at a beekeepers picnic in July, Ingram gave Susan Kivikko, the new local bee inspector for the IDofA, a frame of comb that the bees would have nothing to do with. Ingram wanted to know what chemicals were in it, but Kivikko informed him that the IDofA did not have the funds to test for chemicals, just funds to test for foulbrood.

Following the Illinois Bees and Apiaries Act (510 ILCS 20/1 et seq.), Ingram received an IDofA “Apiary Inspection Site Report” in November that said on Sunday, October 23, 2011; Inspector Susan Kivikko examined his apiary.

In the report, Kivikko commented that “foulbrood [was] present - Colonies weak.” She said that out of 19 colonies, 15 were examined and 15 samples of suspected foulbrood were gathered. 11 were “dead.”

Next, Ingram received a “Disease Notice” dated November 9, 2011, and a copy of the “Bee Disease Diagnosis” submitted by Kivikko to the USDA Bee research Laboratory in Maryland, received at the lab 10/27/11, and diagnosed 11/01/11. The notice stated that yes, Ingram’s apiary was infected with foulbrood, and that treatment by burning is ordered in accordance with Sec. 60.50(b) of the Bees and Apiaries Act.

Going back to the summer beekeepers picnic in July, in a phone call to Kivikko on Monday, April 30, she confirmed that yes, Ingram had asked her to look at a frame that his bees ignored, and asked her to test it for chemicals. She did have the comb tested for foulbrood, and yes, the comb did test positive. Ingram did not receive an Apiary Inspection Site Report, since he gave the frame to Kivikko at a picnic. But he did not receive a Disease Notice or Bee Disease Diagnosis from that sample.

“All combs, frames, honey and bees must be destroyed by burning . . . Hive bodies, supers, bottom boards, inner and outer covers may be salvaged by sanitizing with a scorching flame, such as a propane torch.” The notice was signed by Kivikko, and said Ingram must comply with the order by November 25, 2011.

“They gave me 10 days to destroy it,” said Ingram. “Destroy what? She had identified the hives by their numbers. That’s how beekeepers keep records, that’s the first thing we do is number the hives. Well, the end of October came, and it was still warm in early November, so I painted all of my equipment, so it would be ready for my beginning beekeeping class. How could I know what numbers they were that she was referring to? Under oath, she said she could see the numbers under the paint. She must have better eyes than me.” (Note: this reporter could not see the numbers)

The diagnosis from the USDA lab stated that “Hives #9, 11 (smear). 11 (comb), 13, 13B, 15, 15B, 18, 19, 22, 28, 29, Dead, Comb (no label), and 12 - American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae). Hives #4 and 28 - No disease was found.

“Additionally, positive American foulbrood samples #9, 11 (smear), 15, 22, and 29 were cultured and checked for sensitivity to Terramycin and Tylan. The samples were found to be susceptible to both antibiotics.”

IDofA allegedly sent another Site Report to Ingram that said on Thursday, December 8, 2011, Kivikko again visited the apiary. (Ingram said he never received it, but was presented a copy at the April 4, 2012 hearing). Kivikko’s report said that the status of the “infected colonies” was unchanged. It was noted that she had taken photos during her observations.

On January 3, 2012, Ingram’s wife, Nancy, signed a return receipt request for a Certified Letter sent by the IDofA Apiary Inspection Supervisor Steven D. Chard on December 30, 2011. The letter stated that “During a routine inspection of your honeybee colonies by . . . Inspectors Susan Kivikko and Eleanor Balson on October 23, 2011, the bacterial disease ‘American Foulbrood’ was detected in a number of colonies located behind your house . . . Presence of the disease in some of your colonies was confirmed via test results from the USDA Bee Research Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland that analyzed samples collected from your apiary . . . Subsequently, in accordance with the . . . Act, an official disease notice was issued to you for destroying the infected colonies. On a return trip to your apiary [Dec. 8] to verify that you had complied with the instructions specified by the disease notice, Ms. Kivikko found that the infected colonies had in fact not been destroyed.”

The letter continued with a full description of the proper procedure to “abate the nuisance” as per the above Act. According to the definitions in the Act, “Abate” means the destruction or disinfection of bees, colonies, or items of bee equipment by burning or by treatment specified by the Department.

In the letter, Ingram was “required to abate the nuisance by burning all bees, combs, frames and honey in a pit at least 18 inches deep and then covering the ashes with at least 6 inches of soil. You are to carry out this procedure within 10 days from the date of this letter [Jan. 9, 2012] and Ms. Kivikko will visit your apiary to ensure that the subject colonies have been destroyed. Evidence of the burning pit will confirm that you have complied with this notice.”

This requirement is noticeably different than the requirement stated in the Nov. 9 Disease Notice.

Chard advised in the letter that failure on the part of Ingram to follow the instructions “can result in the Department abating the nuisance and charging you for associated costs incurred or conducting an administrative hearing on this matter . . . ” Chard also confirmed that American foulbrood “is a deadly disease that can easily spread to other honeybee colonies . . .”

Two more Apiary Inspection Site Reports were produced by IDofA, stating that on Tuesday, Jan. 10 and Thursday, Jan. 19, Kivikko had revisited the apiary to check on Ingram’s compliance of previous notifications.

A hearing was set for April 4, a full 3 weeks after the events of March 14, when the IDofA confiscated the bees.

Yet, another part of the statute states, “No person shall transport a colony of bees or items of used bee equipment between counties within this State without a permit or compliance agreement which shall be issued based upon an inspection certificate from the Department. (Source: P.A. 88-138.)

“No person” - except that it’s OK for the IDofA to transport apiary equipment and bees intrastate - especially potentially contaminated equipment and bees?

Of course. They have a permit! This double standard makes no sense, especially if the disease is as contagious as they claim.

Statutes and due process

That 3-week delay is the most disturbing aspect of these incidents, Ingram said.

“The State Department of Agriculture came in and inspected our hives 4 times, 3 times when we were not home, and without due process. I have never received or found a Search Warrant. I own four businesses. I am here all the time. Yet they took our bees and hives when we were not home. What did they do, sit up on the hill and watch until we left? We had not yet had our day in court to prove that our hives did not have foulbrood!”

Steve Chard, IDofA Apiary Division Supervisor, was asked why the hearing took place 3 weeks after the abatement on March 14. Chard stated that he was more than happy to answer any questions, but had to wait until the determination of the hearing was made, which should be by the middle of next week. Chard said Ingram would receive a copy as well. Because the determination of the legal proceeding had not been made, the IDofA attorneys instructed him not to comment at this time.

“The only time I was here during any of these inspections was when it was 3 degrees out,” the January 19 visit. “What she (Kivikko) was doing in the yard, I don’t know. When she saw me coming down, she very quickly came up and met me before I could get down there and see what they were doing. I have no idea what they were planning to do, or what they did.”

Ingram said he knew that the inspectors could not tell what they were seeing and had warned the Department that if any of them came back it would be considered a criminal trespass. “But they came back when I was not home, stole my hives and ruined 15 years of research.”

When asked about the March 14 incident, Jo Daviess County Sheriff Kevin Turner said he was informed by the Asst. State’s Attorney by email that yes, the IDofA has the right to “abate the nuisance,” as stated above.

Sheriff Turner said that he had been contacted by Supervisor Chard before the events of March 14 took place. He confirmed that a Sheriff’s Deputy was at the scene with the representative from IDofA for observation only, but that there was not a search warrant issued.

Sheriff Turner was asked to comment on the fact that if there was a nuisance, and as Ingram said, the IDofA did confiscate and not destroy his hives, where is the evidence? The evidence is gone. Is that proper procedure?

Turner stated that, “We do not destroy evidence,” but did not want to comment about the procedure, or any other observations about the incident.

In October, “She (Kivikko) cut out a section of comb and sent it to a lab in Maryland, that detected foulbrood,” Ingram said. Ingram explained that she had cut out samples, up to 6x8 inches, from the very center of the brood frames, ruining every comb she sampled.

All of the live hives had a full super of honey placed on them before they left for their granddaughter’s wedding. The two hives that were left did not have the supers of honey on them. They were removed along with the other equipment. Ingram said he checked the hives recently, and neither one has a queen.

A honey super is a part of a commercial beehive that is used to collect honey. When the honeycomb is full, the bees will cap the comb with beeswax. Beekeepers take the full honey supers and extract the honey. Honey supers are removed in the fall when the honey is extracted and before the hive is winterized.

“Could the queens have been up in the supers when they were removed? Or did this inspector kill the queens, either on purpose or unknowingly, when she inspected the hives in October? I will never know.”

At the April 4 hearing, Ingram said he felt he was able to show the court that the inspector could not tell the difference between “chilled brood” and foulbrood. He also proved to the court that the inspectors did not know the symptoms of foulbrood. The Ingrams used to manage over 250 colonies of honeybees, breeding their own queens for traits which they deemed necessary for successful survival, and charge they were all killed by Round-Up. “When Round-Up kills the adult bees there are not enough bees left in the hive to keep the young bees (brood) warm, and the young bees die from the cold (chilled brood).

“I tried to prove that just because foulbrood can be detected once the hive has been disturbed, doesn’t mean the hive has foulbrood. Inside a honeybee hive is one of the cleanest places you can find. Anything that is a problem, if the bees can’t remove it, they cover it with propolis, which is an antiseptic.”

Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. But propolis also prevents diseases and parasites from entering the hive, inhibits bacterial growth, and prevents putrefaction within the hive. Bees usually carry waste out of and away from the hive.

“If a mouse finds its way into the hive and dies, bees wouldn’t be able to carry it out,” Ingram said. “They would cover it up in propolis. It would be a big, brown lump, making it odorless and harmless to the hive. Same as with any disease. They cover it up.

“When you go into the comb and cut it up, disturb it like the investigators did, then send it to a lab, it exposes foulbrood to the world. In the beehive, it’s covered up. The bees aren’t affected by it. But you can find it by sending it in to a lab.”

Ingram admits he has had foulbrood - 30 years ago. He has killed two hives that had foulbrood in the 58 years that he’s been a beekeeper. He caught a swarm that was infected, and killed them within 3 weeks.

“When I was breeding my own bees, before they were killed by Round Up, I had foulbrood in one hive. I left it there all summer, just to see if the other hives would pick it up. They never did. That’s when I knew that it’s not as bad as people let on. Bees can take care of it. I had an inspector come in and examine for it, and he said the yard was clean, and I knew it wasn’t.

“Doctors don’t treat patients until they see the symptoms, right? When does a beekeeper have to watch his hives for foulbrood? When he gets symptoms. There is no way that any beekeepers are going to be able to spend $60 to send a sample to a lab in Maryland, to find out he has foulbrood. The sample may have foulbrood, but it doesn’t say that the rest of the hive, or his other 5, 15, or hundred hives have it. He can’t go and destroy his hives because one sample has detected it.

“That’s the determination that the hearing officer has to make - am I breaking the inspection law, if they can detect it. Because they sure can’t identify it.”

For the past 15 years, Ingram said he has been conducting research on the effects of Round-Up on honeybees. He feels he had accumulated the necessary data to document the fact that Round-Up was not only the cause of his bees dying, but also possibly the cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD).

“CCD is a calamity that is affecting honeybee colonies across the nation. In fact, I had one queen, which had survived three summers of spraying and three winters. I was planning to raise daughters from that queen to see if she may have had some genetic resistance to Round-Up. But she and her hive were taken during the theft. I don’t even know where the bees and my equipment are. They ruined 15 years of my research.

“When I asked when the best time was to inspect for foulbrood, the inspector said any time. I told her, ‘Lady you better not look in my hives when it’s 3 degrees! You do not disturb the bees at that time. That would be like inspecting for a child’s disease. Do you look for it when they are adults? She was looking for the brood when the brood was not there. She could not tell us that. The inspector did not understand that by the end of October my bees had quit brood rearing and were already getting into their winter cluster. They were moving slowly to conserve energy. She testified to the court that the bees were sick and lethargic, as if they were sick from foulbrood. She didn’t seem to know that foulbrood only affects the young bees, because there was no brood there. Adult honeybees are not affected by foulbrood.”

A photo taken during the Jan. 19 inspection, submitted by Kivikko, showed bees at the entrance of one of the hives that were deemed healthy, in the dead of winter. Ingram told the court that the inspectors did not understand honeybees, especially when they could not even tell a live bee from a dead bee.

Ingram told the court that, “From the Chief Apiary Inspector down to the individual inspectors, there is no longer a requirement that the person needs to know anything about honeybees, let alone anything about their diseases. These people just got political appointments to their positions. Years ago inspectors had to pass a test to be qualified for the position and document that they knew honeybees and their diseases, but not today.

“At least [Kivikko] did know that foulbrood only affects honeybees and that if there should be any of the virus in honey it would not affect people.”

Although Inspector Kivikko is relatively new to the IDofA inspection team, she said she has over 12 years of experience in the apiary field.

“I had been called by many area beekeepers because of my experience,” Kivikko stated. “That’s why I was called in by the IDofA to do the job. I’m good at it.”

When Ingram asked the Chief Apiary Inspector if he had ordered the theft, Chard answered, “yes,” before the IDofA attorney could object. This was the first time that Ingram knew, for certain, who had taken his bees.

Unfortunately, rumors have been circulated, suggesting no one buy honey produced by the Ingrams. Apple Creek Apiaries markets close to 4 tons of honey a year. Ingram said they have to buy extracted honey that they sell from beekeepers in Wisconsin and Iowa who are not yet affected by Round-Up.

“We have not produced one gallon of extracted honey since 1995 when our 250 hives were killed. I have replaced some of them each year only to have most of them killed before winter. I can produce comb honey, but it takes all of the extracted honey for the bees to get past the late summer use of Round-Up and have anything left for their winter feed. Last year, I had 20 hives during the height of the summer, but only went into the winter with 4 live hives, three of them headed by queens I had raised. But all the queens are gone now.”

Questions unanswered

Ingram believes that a comprehensive letter he wrote to Gov. Pat Quinn on January 7, and another to Rep. Jim Sacia Feb. 9, raised the ire of the IDofA.

“I wrote Gov. Quinn that the order to destroy my bees was the result of an unknown inspection, conducted by our local neophyte bee inspector, without my knowledge, and without my presence. When checking the date on which this order claims the inspection was done against our own daily log, I was either at home, or at the office 1/2 mile away, but she never had the courtesy to let me know that she was in the area.”

The statute gives the Department the right of entry “to inspect or cause to be inspected from time to time any bees, colonies, items of bee equipment or apiary. For the purpose of inspection, the Director is authorized during reasonable business hours to enter into or upon any property used for the purpose of beekeeping. (Source: P.A. 88-138.)

For most businesses, a Sunday is not “during reasonable business hours.”

“I asked Rep. Sacia to take the teeth out of the current law, preventing untrained inspectors from doing sneak inspections without the beekeeper present, killing their bees and burning their equipment, or forcing organic beekeepers out of business, telling them that they have to use chemicals to keep bees in Illinois. Are the chemical companies really running our food supply?”

On February 14, Rep. Sacia sent a letter to Marc Miller, Director of the Dept. of Natural Resources, saying that Ingram “asks some pointed, thought provoking questions and I’m hoping that your professionals can respond to Terry and me regarding his points.”

Exactly one month later, on March 14, an elected official and one of his constituents, a citizen of Illinois, got their response directly from the Illinois Department of Agriculture in the form of their “abate the nuisance” policy. Is that how a State Representative is treated by an unelected government agency? Just who is running this state?

“Is Illinois becoming a police state, where citizens do not have rights?” Ingram asked in desperation. “Knowing that Monsanto and the Dept. of Ag are in bed together, one has to wonder if Monsanto was behind the theft to ruin my research that may prove Round-Up was, and is, killing honeybees. Beekeepers across the state are being threatened that the same thing may be done to their hives and livelihood. I was not treated properly, I don’t want to see this happen to anyone else in this state, and I want this type of illegal action to end.”

What is most disturbing to the Ingrams is that the State Department of Agriculture came in and inspected their hives when they were not home and without due process, took their bees and hives. At the time of the theft the Ingram’s had not yet had their day in court to prove that their hives did not have foulbrood. Ingram knew that the inspectors could not tell what they were seeing and had warned the Department that if any of them came back it would be considered a criminal trespass. Yet they came back when he was not home, stole his hives and ruined his 15 years of research.

“What was the value of that 3-year-old queen?” Ingram asked. “It could have been that she would have a resistant trait that we could expand into the whole bee culture to help them survive this Round-Up thing. How can you place a dollar value on that potential?”

Considering the fact that Ingram’s queens, bees, and hives were taken off his property on March 14, rather than being “abated,” as was the “requirement” stated in the notices from the IDofA, the dollar value of such a queen cannot be disregarded as a major motivation for such an act.

Ingram said that during the hearing he asked “both the inspector and her boss to name one person in the state that is doing research on Round-Up and honeybees. They couldn’t name one. Of course, they didn’t know if I was doing it either . . . I sent him a copy of my results 2 years ago. Under oath, he can say no, he didn’t know about it. It burns me, it really burns me.”

There are other unanswered pertinent questions as well. Is the Illinois Dept. of Agriculture, and the legislation that empower it, unconstitutional?

Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution gives the federal government the power “to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes.” Does that mean a state agency has the legal right to regulate the conduct of individual businesses, with no due process? Has recent loose interpretation of the Commerce Clause given them the ability to shut down businesses they don’t like?

Why does the IDofA forcibly “recommend” the use of antibiotics prophylactically over the concerns of Ingram and other organic beekeepers who know that the drugs create resistance to the antibiotics? Ingram knows that most insects and plants take care of themselves. Most become naturally resistant to the affects of many unnatural environmental influences over the eons. They survived.

In the letter to the governor, Ingram said he was “afraid that someone may come in when I am not home and burn these hives just because they say the letter of the law gives them that power and they have that right. I feel that my rights and potential livelihood may be taken away.”

The fears expressed by Ingram to Gov. Quinn on Jan. 7 have, unfortunately, come to pass.

The next, and most troubling, unanswered question is this: Who’s next?

(Mr. Ingram’s views expressed during the course of this interview are not necessarily the views of this newspaper.)
http://www.pacc-news.com/5-2-12/heart_ingram5_2_12.html (+ comments)
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