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The Three Hypostases, Metempsychosis & Time
01-13-2007, 08:23 PM,
#1
The Three Hypostases, Metempsychosis & Time
As it is known by historians, the doctrine of three hypostases, or trinity, is not something new; it is a credo adopted from polytheistic cults. As the number of gods increased so as to attract the attention of the nescient populace and stir up feelings of alertness in them, notables of a polytheistic community would arrange the gods in order of superiority, appointing some of them as chiefs and others as their inferiors. They decided to keep the investigation of this arrangement as a secret among themselves. Zerdusht (Zoroaster or Zarathustra), [the founder of magi, the basic religious system of ancient Persia], chose two of their idols, Yezdan (Ormuzd or (Ahura) Mazda) and Ehremen (Ahriman), as two hypostases, and established an unprecedented system of belief which was based on a curious conflict between Yezdan the god of light and good and Ahriman the god, or spirit, of darkness and evil]. [31]

Mazhar Djan-i-Djanan [32], a great Indian 'alim, states in his fourteenth letter: "Brahminism was a heavenly religion. It was degenerated afterwards." The expression 'three hypostases, was first heard from these people (Brahmins).

[It would be more correct to call it a philosophy, or doctrine, instead of a religion. It is understood that it was founded by the mutilation of a heavenly religion seven hundred years before Isa 'alaihis-salam'. The agent of this mutilation is Brahma. (In Sanskrit) Brahma means holy word. This expression has been used for Isa 'alaihis- salam' in Christianity. When Christians are questioned about the divinity of Isa 'alaihis-salam', their first evidence to prove it is some verses in the first chapter of the Gospel of John, which are, "The word existed in the beginning, and the word was near God, and the word was God" [1, 2, 3], and "And the word became a body and remained silent among us, full of grace and truth. And we saw its honor as the honor of the only son of the Father" [4]. An exact analogue of Brahminism.]. Likewise, members of the Brahministic caste believe in a deity who became a reality in the name of (Brahma). According to their doctrine, a most perfect, ever silent god is the real essence of all. Yet this god does his work through two other gods: Vishnu and Siva (or Shiva). They say that they are one god manifesting in a triad.

According to Brahmins, (Brahma) is the creator of all and the world. He does all the work of creating, and his symbol is the sun. Vishnu is reason. He is a god protecting all. He rules over the time lived in. His symbol is water. And Siva is the god of life and death. He rules over the time lived in and future. Justice and vengeance are his responsibility. His symbol is fire. [Brahmins believe that their god Vishnu lives in heaven. The other gods tell Vishnu that some demons have appeared on the earth and deranged the quietude and order of the earth, and therefore he must be born incarnate on the earth for the chastisement of those demons. Vishnu accepts this suggestion and incarnates as Krishna, the warrior, being born from a virgin of a warrior family in order to purge the earth of evils and demons. The virgin has dreamt of this event beforehand. Krishna learns all knowledge in sixty-four days. He works as a shepherd. He travels far and wide. He displays wonders in places where he travels. Upon seeing this, brahmins accept him as a deity that has descended to earth in a human figure. Many other myths are told about Krishna by the votaries of Brahma. Likewise, Buddhists accept Buddha as a deity. According to Buddhists, Buddha lived in heaven before descending to earth. He looked for a place to appear on earth and eventually decided to be born as a member of the Sudhodana family. (The myth is as follows: ) His mother, fasting as she is, falls asleep on the roof of the palace, and has a dream. In her dream a white elephant emitting haloes all around itself descends from heaven and, to her astonishment, enters her womb from her right flank. Many symptoms are seen towards Buddha's birth. His mother leaves her town and delivers her divine son under a tree. Buddhism teems with things which reason or logic could never accept. Brahminism, Buddhism, and the Christian credo, trinity, are analogous, similarities between them, such as a god's entering a virgin and being born from her and people's accepting him as a deity. Here are some of them.

1 - According to Christians, Isa 'alaihis-salam' died, and resurrected three days after death. Krishna, too, resurrected after death, and ascended to heaven.

2 - Isa 'alaihis-salam' resurrected from his grave, and Buddha from his coffin.

3 - Isa 'alaihis-salam' said beforehand that he would be killed, saved the souls in dungeons, that is in Hell, and after resurrecting from his grave sat on the right hand side of God. And Buddha said he would withdraw from the world and go to nirvana.

4 - When Isa 'alaihis-salam' went up to heaven, he took over and began to control all the matters of the universe. Likewise, Buddha established the sultanate of heavens and began to dominate over the universe.

5 - The Gospels unanimously enumerate the fathers of Isa 'alaihis-salam' up to Dawud (David) 'alaihis-salam', whom they call the first Malik (King, Ruler). Likewise, Buddha's genealogy is said to begin with Makavamat the first Ruler.

Trinity and metempsychosis, i.e. belief in the transmigration of a dead person's soul into a new body, existed not only in Indian religions, but also in the ancient Egyptian religions. The best known of the Egyptian deities is (Amonra). His symbol is the sun. He was believed to have created this world with his will and speech. (Osiris), his assistant, is their second deity. Osiris came down to earth, underwent various afflictions, and was killed. He resurrected and ascended to heaven with the help of (Isis), their third deity. Thus Osiris became the god of the dead. Also, in ancient Egypt, kings, or Pharaohs, were believed to be the sons of Amonra (the sun).

Ancient Egyptians believed that when a person died he was called to account by Osiris].

The inventor of the doctrine of three hypostases in the west is the philosopher Time (Timaios), who lived in the city of Lokres some five hundred years before the Christian Era. He was one of the pupils of Pythagoras. He learned this doctrine of three hypostases [beings, bases]. [Pythagoras was born on the Island of Samos in 580 B.C. It is narrated that he died in Metaponte in 500 B.C. There are differing narratives as to the dates of his birth and death. He came to the Kroton city of Italy when he was young yet. Thence he traveled to various places, having long stays in Egypt and the Middle East. During his stay in Egypt he acquired extensive knowledge about the ancient Egyptian religions and cults. Learning the belief in three gods and metempsychosis from the Egyptians, he accepted them. Another thing he learned in Egypt was Hendese (geometry). The theorem known as Pythagoras' proposition (theorem) today was known pragmatically in Egypt in those days. They (such pieces of information as this theorem) had come to Egypt from Babylon, which was at that time very advanced in 'ilm-i-nujum (astronomy), mathematics and astrology. And Babyloneans, in their turn, had been taught these branches of knowledge by the great Prophet Idris [33] 'alaihis-salam', Pythagoras went to Babylon and learned them well. On his returning to the city of Kroton he opened a school, and established a new way, or a new sect, named after him. His votaries have fabled many myths about him and made a Prophet of him, and some of them have professed his deity. Pythagoras said that the essence of being was numbers (arche). He accepted numbers up to ten as sacred. He accepted the numbers of one, two and three as the three essences. Pythagoreans claim that the number one is the unchangeable and eternal source of the universe and therefore the first hypostasis, the number two is feminine and all the world has come into existence through her and she is the second hypostasis, and the number three is the third hypostasis representing the eternal triad in the universe. They assert that these three hypostases are the essence of the world and of the universe. They interpret the essence of universe as (body, life and soul). They say that the universe consists of three worlds, namely (the natural, the human, and the divine worlds). According to the Pythagoreans, as everything is made up of three, creation originates from this triad, which is made up of the creative will, the current of stars, and the ever improving universe. There is detailed information in the book (La Pensee Grecque) by Gomperz about Pythagoras' numbers and other philosophical views. According to Pythagoras, the first hypostasis, i.e. God, who is able to do whatever He wishes, cannot be comprehended mentally. The Pythagoreans, who believe that soul is eternal [immortal] and that a dying person's soul may transmigrate into an animal, do not eat meat. Time, an outstanding disciple of Pythagoras', followed his master's way].

Time states in his book Ruh-ul-alam (Essence of the Universe) "First of all, creatures have a fikr-i-mithal- i-daimi (the eternal ideal pattern), which is the first word, the first hypostasis, which is spiritual, not substantial, and therefore, cannot be comprehended by mind. The second grade is the madde-i-ghyar-i-muntazima, which is the second word pronounced, the second hypostasis. The third grade is the world of son, or meaning, which is the third hypostasis. All the universe consists in these three classes. The son wanted to make a beautiful god, and made a god which was a creature." These statements, complicated and incomprehensible as they were, reached Plato. [There is a narrative stating that Time was one of Plato's teachers. For Plato says that his great master Socrates and Time had been together in a gathering. Time had three works, namely (Mathematics), (Life of Pythagoras), and (Essence of the Universe). Two of them were lost. His book (Essence of the Universe), the one which was not lost, should have busied philosophers very much. For there is not much difference between the idea derived from the first six chapters of this book and the idea in Plato's speech on Time (Timeios)].

Plato modified this idea coming from Time. Plato proposed existence of three gods. He said:

The first one is Father. He is the highest one and the creator; he is the father of the other two gods. He is the first hypostasis.

The second one is the primordial, visible god, who is the representative of Father, who is invisible. It is named (Logos), which means word, reason, (account).

The third one is the Universe.

According to Plato, the essence of beings is meanings [ideas]. [The word idea, which Plato refers to, means entity, conception, archetype. In Platonic philosophy it means the unchanging, eternally existing pattern of which all classes of beings are imperfect copies. Plato divides the universe into two worlds. The first one is the perceptible world of senses. The other one is the real world, that is, the world of ideas. While the real world, or the world of ideas, is eternal, the world of senses continuously changes.] The existence of ideas is not dependent upon our mind or imagination, but they exist in an immaterial life peculiar to them. Plato refers each reality or idea to higher realities. Thus all realities and ideas are referred to the absolute (ONE). This ONE, which is (goodness) consisting of many high realities, is God himself. Other high ideas or realities are in His command. Lower ideas are (evils) and are the devil himself. Other low, evil ideas are in His command.

[Plato said that what he accepted as (ONE), who comprised ideas in Himself and whom he called 'goodness' and believed to be identical with God, was the (Father god), who had motion and life and who was the father of the universe. This is the first hypostasis. Father god, that is, the unity of ideas, created a spirit, which gave matter its systematic order and which was quite different from matter. This is the son of Father. This spirit is a being which intermediates between the creator and the creature, and is the second hypostasis.

Plato, as well as all the other ancient Greek philosophers like Pythagoras and Time learned their views and observations about the spirit which they called 'the second hypostasis' by reading the books of (the Prophets) Adam and Shiet (or Shis) 'alaihimus-salam', or from religious scholars who had read and knew those books, and attempted to explain them with their insufficient knowledge and short range mentalities, thus distorting them. Plato states in his Menon speech that the soul is immortal, that it has come to earth various times, and that it has seen everything in this perceptible (world) and in the imperceptible (hereafter). In his Phaidros speech he divides the soul into three parts: The first is mind, which has been inclined towards ideas. The second and the third are the parts pertaining to aspirations and sensations. One of them follows the mind and leads to goodness, i.e. to God, and the other leads to evil corporeal desires]. Carcass, or body, is a dungeon wherein soul has been hurled after a preliminary sojourn in the incorporeal world of ideas. [Thus mankind, composed of soul and body, came into existence.]. The goal of ethics is to free the soul from the shackles tethering it to the dungeon of body, Seframk says that the way to happiness is in attaining virtue and perfection. Plato says, "Perfection of happiness fully exists in virtue. Virtue and perfection are the health, salvation and balance of soul. For attaining happiness, it will be enough to endeavor only for attaining virtue without thinking of worldly advantages or aspiring for the rewards in the hereafter.

According to the philosophy of (Rawaqiyyun), "goodness alone is virtue, and evil alone is sinful. Health, illness, wealth, poverty, and even life and death are neither good nor bad. It is up to man to make them good or bad. Man has to believe in the preordination of Allahu ta'ala, that is, in destiny, and commit his will to the will of Allahu ta'ala. Humanity is like a flock (of sheep). Their shepherd is the common reason, or (Logos), which is the creative power of nature. All men are brothers. Their common father is (Zoz), or (God). Zoz is the soul of all universe. He is eternal, one. Other gods are his component parts. [Philosophy founded by Zenon and followed by some Greek philosophers is called Rawaqiyyun (Stoicism)].

Followers of the philosophy of (Ishraqiyyun) inculcate peace and mercy; so much so that the pleasure that a person takes in doing good to someone else is more than the pleasure felt when one is done good to, they say. [This philosophy is called (Illuminism), which is an extension of the way followed by Pythagoreans and Platonist. The founder of neo-Platonism is Plotin, who adopted Plato's theory of ideas]. The statement, "The flavor in giving is more than the flavor in taking", which the existing copies of the Bible attribute to Isa 'alaihis-salam', is identical with the main principle of the philosophy of Ishraqiyyun. [This means to say that stoicists and illuminist present the pieces of information they acquired from religious books and religious scholars in a manner as if they were their own views and findings. The great Islamic savant Imam-i-Muhammad Ghazali 'rahmat-ullahi alaih' [34] expounds this fact in detail in his books (Al-munqizu min-ad-dalal) and (Tahafut-ul-falasifa).

The philosophical school founded by Plato lived for seven or eight centuries together with its tenets. The views of this school of philosophy extended beyond Italy, having its most dramatic impact on the Alexandrian school in the third century]. Plato's doctrine of three hypostases, along with his other philosophical views, had made its way into the schools of Alexandria and was being taught there, when Isa 'alaihis-salam' appeared. In fact, even Philo, a renowned Judaic scholar in Alexandria at that time, wished to see this doctrine of trinity among the other tenets of the religion of Musa 'alaihis- salam'. With this desire he said, "The Taurah declares that the world was created in six days; it is true. For the number three is half of six. And the number two is one-third of six. This number is both masculine and feminine. God married reason and had a son by reason. This son is the world." Philo called the world 'kelima-i- ilahiyya (divine word)', which was a name he ascribed to angels, too. This was an effect of Platonic philosophy. [Platonic philosophy, which was later renamed as neo- Platonism and went on its way, dealt the severest blow on the Nazarene, or Isawi, religion. In other words, the third century of the Christian era, when neo-Platonism was at the zenith of its power, was at the same time the period in which Christianity was the religion of the Roman Empire. Adherents of that philosophy defiled this religion of tawhid (unity), which was based on the existence and oneness of Allahu ta'ala and the prophethood of Isa 'alaihis-salam'. Later on idolatry, too, was inserted into this religion. Saint Augustine, who lived in the fourth century of the Christian era, (354-430), tried to Christianize Plato. Augustine's views about God, soul, and the universe, which he proposes in his book (de Trinite), which he wrote with a view to proving trinity, are quite identical with Platonic philosophy. Using Plato's statement, "Reason, will, and sensation make up a human being", as a testimony for proving trinity, he says, "Though the Three Persons in Trinity seem to be disparate, they make up one God." He alleges that Plato and his disciples realized the true God. Taking Plato's philosophy of ideas as a fulcrum, he argues that the Word is creative and that the Word is Isa 'alaihis-salam'. Augustine, who is esteemed and accepted as a saint amongst Christians, acknowledges that such Christian tenets as trinity, good, and evil exist in their exact identities in Plato's philosophy. In addition, he cites Plato's views as a document for proving trinity. The views of a person who died 350 years before the Christian era are identical with the tenets of Christianity: a hard question for Christians to answer. This concurrence shows that Plato was contemporary with Isa 'alaihis-salam', which is the truth. And this truth is explained on the 266 th. Letter of the book (Maktubat) by the great Islamic alim Imam-i-Rabbani Ahmad Faruqi [35] 'rahmat-ullahi alaih."

Furthermore, Saint Thomas, one of the ecclesiastical personages of the eighth century of the Christian era, endeavors to prove the Christian tenets, particularly trinity, by taking the philosophy of Aristotle, who was Plato's disciple. This book of ours is too small for us to mention all the ecclesiastical saints who were the true defenders of the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. Yet we shall touch upon an illuminatory fact, which will give our readers a more realistic insight into the matter: Throughout the Middle Ages, even after the realization of the Renaissance in Europe, opposing the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, or refusing it, or even slightly contradicting it was requited with penalty of death by the ecclesiastical tribunal called Inquisition. We wonder how today's trinitarian Christians should explain this? It is certain that philosophy of Plato (Platonism), philosophy of Rawaqiyyun (Stoicism), philosophy of Ishraqiyyun (Gnosticism), and other Greek schools of philosophy had a major role in the formation of the tenets of Christianity. This fact is explained in detail and with proofs in the book titled (The Influence of Greek Ideas on Christianity), by Dr. Edwin Hatch].

As is understood from the above statements, such concepts as purging the heart of wicked traits, attaining happiness by adopting beautiful moral habits, acquiescing in destiny, having tawakkul (putting your trust in Allahu ta'ala), accepting human beings as the sons and children of Allahu ta'ala, and Allahu ta'ala as the common father of all, do not belong exclusively to the Gospels. Hundreds of years before the Gospels they were being discussed among Greek philosophers, [and various philosophers were trying to explain them in various ways. For they had been taught about heavenly religions by Prophets]. It is certain that the statements referring to trinity did not exist in the former heavenly religions or in the genuine copies of the Bible, but they were fabricated by Greek philosophers and were inserted into the Gospels that were written after the spreading of Christianity in Greece and Alexandria.

Isa 'alaihis-salam' was born in a place where people lived up to the principles of the religion of Musa 'alaihis-salam'. Until his Ascension, he acted upon the Shariat of Musa 'alaihis-salam'. The commandments that were assigned to the Israelites he observed with them. He preached in Synagogues and instructed the tenets in the Taurah (Torah). To those who had wandered from the religion of Musa 'alaihis-salam' he preached the religion of Musa 'alaihis-salam', and taught them the manners of observance as prescribed in that religion. He cherished those Israelites who held fast to that religion. Like Jews, he was baptized in the river of Erden (Jordan) by Yahya 'alaihis-salam' (John the Baptist). [The river of Jordan is in Palestine and is 250 kilometers long]. He was circumcised when he was born. He did not baptize anybody. He fasted. He did not eat pork. He did not say, "God entered me, I am the son of God eternally in the past and eternally in the future. My person is composed of two components; a mature human being; and the son of God, which is divine." Nor did he say, "The Holy Spirit acts upon the common commandment of my father and me. Believe in three deities, who are Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit." He said, "I came to consolidate the Shariat (the canonical law of Musa 'alaihis-salam'),not to change it." All books of history agree to the fact that there was no such notion as trinity among the Nazarites; neither during the lifetime of Isa 'alaihis-salam', nor in the Apostles' Creed.

It was towards the termination of the second century of the Christian era that the expression 'There Persons' emerged among Christians. Because this doctrine was extremely at loggerheads with the religion preached by Isa 'alaihis-salam', those who believed in Three Persons concealed their belief from Christians for some time; but they strove to disseminate it in a clandestine way. Meanwhile, upholders of trinity [three gods], with a view to popularizing the course they had taken, published the Gospel of John and the so-called Apostolic epistles, e.g. the Pauline epistles, which were written after the Apostles. This gave birth to a number of controversies, disputes, and strifes amongst Christians. Both the unitarian Christians, i.e. those who believed in the oneness of Allahu ta'ala, and the trinitarians embarked upon an assiduous endeavor to popularize their own credo and to get the better of the opposite side, and scribes on both sides daily wrote Gospels and innumerable pamphlets and epistles that were attributed to the Apostles. Eventually the contentions escalated to their zenith, and the Christian world was divided into two major groups by the beginning of the fourth century of the Christian era. A number of Christians professed that Isa 'alaihis- salam' was God Himself without an dissimilitude. their leader was St. Athanasius, the Bishop of Istanbul. Other Christians, on the other hand, asseverated that Isa 'alaihis-salam' was the most elevated of creatures, a Prophet sent down by Allah, and yet a born servant of Allah. And their leaders were a monk named Arius and Eusebius, the Bishop of Izmit (Nicomedia). [Before them Yunus Shammas, the Bishop of Antioch, had declared that Allahu ta'ala is one, and many people had come round to the right course. But later trinitarian priests had begun to worship three gods and tried to spread this doctrine. Thus the number of trinitarians had increased]. The clashes between trinitarians and those who retained their belief in the fact that Isa 'alaihis-salam' is the born servant and Prophet of Allahu ta'ala caused mental disturbance among the populace. State administration, on the other hand, could no longer be carried on properly. Upon this, the Emperor, Constantine the Great, decided to put an end to these tumults and convened a far-reaching council in Nicea in 325 (A.D.) Eminent Christian clergy joined this council. After many long debates, the Athanasians gained ascendancy. Three hundred and nineteen priests concurred with full divinity of Isa 'alaihis- salam', which meant that he was the unique son of God, the offspring of God, a God from God, a Light from Light, a true God from the true God. The following statements have been derived and paraphrased from the twenty-third chapter of the eighth book of the history of (Nisfur) and from the fifth volume of the history of (Baruniyus), which give an account of the Nicene Council: "During the debates between the Arians and the Athanasians, two members of the assembly, i.e. two bishops named Karizamet and Mizuniyus, passed away. When the Council ended, they resurrected from their graves, signed under the written decision of the Council, and died again." In those times, when it was easy to resuscitate the dead with the point of a pen, even the ecclesiastical historians, who are expected to be trustworthy, succumbed to the zeal of telling such lies as this one. Inserting a multitude of other similar oddities into the Nazarene [Isewee] religion, they beat about these mockeries in order to, so to speak, popularize such a religion as true.

[At the end of the Council of Nicea, with the efforts of Alexander, the Bishop of Alexandria, and Athanasius, Arius was declared to be a heretic and was condemned. Arius was born in Alexandria in 270 A.D. [There is a narrative saying that he was born in Binghazi]. He lived several years after his condemnation. In the meantime, by the intercession of Eusebius, the Bishop of Nicomedia, and the coercion of Constantine, the Emperor, he was forgiven by the church. He was invited to Istanbul by Constantine, who had now become an Arian. He was about to overcome the trinitarians despite the adamant obstructions by the Bishop Alexander, when he suddenly died of a vehement pain, in 336 A.D. After his death his sect spread a great deal and was officially accepted and protected by Constantine's son Constance and his successors.

St. Athanasius was born in Alexandria in 296. He achieved fame with his views on trinity, which he proposed during the Council of Nicea in 325. He became the Bishop of Alexandria in 326. He was passionately opposed to the Arian sect and to the fact that Isa 'alaihis-salam' is human and Prophet. He was condemned by the supporters of Arius in a Council held in Sur city (Tyre) in 335. Four years later he was made Bishop again at the Council of Rome. He died in Alexandria in 373. He wrote books against Arianism. St. Athanasius' day is celebrated on 2 May].

According to the minutes of the Council of Nicea, in that century there were numerous Gospels everywhere and it was impossible to tell which ones were correct and which ones were false. In this Council various discussions were made on fifty-four of these copies of the Bible. Upon reading these copies of the Bible, the priests who were present at this Council saw that fifty of the Gospels were unfounded and rejected them. It was decided that four copies were genuine and the others null and void. Since then [325 A.D.], no copy except these four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John) has been credited, and those others that had existed, have been done away with. More than two thousand clergy attended this Council, and most of them agreed with Arius and believed that Allahu ta'ala is One and Isa 'alaihis-salam' is His born servant and Messenger; yet because Athanasius was the Bishop of Istanbul, most of those who occupied Bishoprics sided with Athanasius, [for fear of losing office]. Thus Arius and his adherents secured themselves against the jeopardy of being deprived of their posts at the cost of defeat; in such a highly important area as religion, where matters must be settled correctly after minute examinations. Upon this, Arius was excommunicated. Later, Athanasius was deposed from the Bishopric, and Arius was invited to Istanbul. [However, as we lave stated earlier, he died before arriving in Istanbul. Constantine the Great had already accepted the Arian sect]. After Constantine's death in 337 A.D., extensive conflicts broke out between the Athansians and the Arians. The winning side was the Arians after these commotions. Arianism remained prevalent for a long time. Afterwards, however, the Athanasians attained ascendancy. They subjected the followers of Arius to various persecutions and torments.

[According to the book (Qamus-ul-alam), "Emperor Theodosius absolutely prohibited Arianism. He ordered that the adherents of this sect be killed"].

The doctrine of trinity was established and adopted in the Council of Nicea; yet Ruh-ul-Quds (The Holy Spirit, or Ghost) was still an uncertain issue. The Holy Spirit, too, ought to be given an import. So this issue also was settled in the Council that was held in Istanbul in 381 A.D.. The principle, "The Holy Spirit as well is a God to be loved. [It has the same essence as Father and Son]. It carries out the Son's orders. It is to be worshipped like the Son", was added to the decisions taken at the Council of Nicea. Later on, the Roman Church forwarded the concept that the Holy Spirit does the orders of Father, thus establishing the tenet "the Holy Spirit does the orders of Father and Son." This decision was sanctioned first in 440 A.D. by Spanish clergy and then in 674 [A.D. 1274] by the Council held in Lion city.

The position of the Holy Spirit having been thus decided upon, it was now hadrat Maryam's turn. The Council that assembled in Ephesus in 431 A.D. decided that she was truly the mother of God and therefore Isa 'alaihis- salam' embodied two natures, i.e. divinity and humanity, in one person. Nestorius, the Patriarch of Istanbul, who was present at the Council, proposed that hadrat Maryam (Mary) be called "The Mother of Christ the Messiah', which won him the infamous nickname 'Esharyutee Yehooda (Judas Iscariot)'.

[Nestorius is a Syrian priest. He was appointed the Patriarch of Istanbul by Thedosius II. He was extremely cruel to the followers of Arius. He had the houses they used for their assemblages burned, together with their inmates. He was opposed to the expression 'Mother of God=Theotekos', which was used to mean hadrat Maryam. He knew a monk he could trust. His name was Anasthasius and lived in Antioch. He invited this monk to Istanbul and had him make speeches everywhere. Anasthasius said, "Let no one call Mary the Mother of God, for Mary was a human being, and it is impossible for God to be born by a human being." His speeches exasperated his adversaries, Cyrillos (Lucaris) and his adherents. Cyrillos reported the speeches of Nestorius and his adherents to the Pope, Celestine I. The Pope, already jealous of Nestorius's aggrandized influence, and indignant for not having been asked what his opinion was concerning hadrat Maryam, convoked a Council in 430 A.D., whereby he issued a decision in favor of the expression 'The Mother of God' about hadrat Maryam and threatened Nestorius with excommunication. This event augmented the agitations all the more. Consequently, the Council of Ephesus, attended by several renowned clergy, was held in 431 A.D.. Priest Cyrillos and his colleagues asked Nestorius to explicate his thoughts in the church called Theotokos. Later, by the unanimous decision of 159 bishops, Nestorius and his credo were excommunicated and condemned. Nestorius was banished to various places. Eventually, he died in a desert-like place called Great Oasis in upper Egypt in 451.

Nestorius had three assertions:

1 - Isa 'alaihis-salam' embodies two distinct personalities: divine and human.

2 - These two qualities do not unite physically. Their unity is incorporeal.

3 - Hadrat Maryam is the mother of the human Jesus, not of God (Word).

The Christian sect founded by Nestorius was called Nestorianism. Today most of the Nestorians live in Syria.

So the tenets and most important principles of a religion which Protestants and other Christians claim has been sent by God can be established by the concourse of a few hundred clergy. These clergy can freely accept or reject a theory propounded as a religious tenet, or make the changes or alterations they think necessary in their religion. Thus Christianity has become a religion that no one with common sense could accept. It is for this reason that many European men of knowledge and science renounce Christianity and a great majority of them are honored with Islam].

After these convulsions, there arose the question whether it was permissible to worship pictures, statues and idols. For the religion of Musa 'alaihis-salam' had forbidden to worship pictures or statues. Therefore, during the early days of the Isawi religion all the Apostles and their disciples avoided worshipping pictures and statues. [Christianity spread over European countries such as Italy and England]. Having been heathens before, the aboriginals of those countries were inclined to worshipping idols. [For they used to make idols and icons for each deity they believed. So the most common and the most improved art among them was making statues, that is, sculpture]. As Christianity spread over these countries, some priests gave permission to revere and worship [spurious] pictures which were made and ascribed to hadrat Maryam the mother of Isa 'alaihis-salam', Other Christian societies were opposed to this for being incompatible with the essence of religion, and thus disputes and contentions started. The tumults lasted until the 787 th. year of the Christian era. In 171 [A.D. 787], in the Council that assembled in Nicea, it was decided to worship sham pictures and icons [that were mendaciously posited as pictures of Isa 'alaihis-salam' and hadrat Maryam]. Those who did not approve worshipping or revering pictures, idols [or statues], on the other hand, did not acquiesce in this decision. Controversies and conflicts continued till 842 A.D., when another Council was convoked in Istanbul by the Emperor Michael and his mother. It was decided in this Council that worshipping icons, statues and pictures was one of the Christian principles of belief. It was proclaimed that should anyone be opposed to the practice of worshipping pictures and icons, they would be a heretic.

[Ever since the adoption of Christianity by the Roman Empire, the Roman Church, taking pride in the fact that Rome was the place where Peter and Paul had been killed, had maintained its braggadocio as the kernel of the entire Christendom]. In 446 [A.D. 1054], the Eastern Church unleashed itself from the Roman Church, thus pioneering a new sect disparate from the Roman Catholic Church. The Eastern Church disagreed with the Roman Church in most of its principles. For instance, the Eastern Christians reject the Pope's spiritual position, that is, that he is the successor of Isa 'alaihis-salam' and Peter's representative, that the Holy Ghost carries out the orders of Father and Son and the grade of i'rad in the hereafter. They perform the Eucharist with leavened bread. They permit priests to get married. The hatred that the Eastern Christians felt against the papacy and their consequent disunion was an alarm loud enough to wake the popes from their apathy; but they were to conceited and too vain to take any warning. On the contrary, the popes' arrogance and vanity and the cardinals' unawareness and indifference kept on increasing. Thus Protestantism emerged in 923 [A.D. 1517], which meant a second splitting of the Roman Catholic Church. In the year 1510 (A.D.), the Pope, Liyman X (Julius II), following the old custom, gave the duty of hearing the German people's confessions to the Dominican monks. This predilection nettled the Augustianian monks. They chose a Catholic priest named Luther as their leader. [Martin Luther is German. He was born in 1453, and died in Eisleben in 953 (A.D. 1546)]. Luther rejected the Pope's hearing confessions, and proposed ninety-five principles, which formed the Protestant tenets. Most of the German Rulers followed Luther. Protestantism, as founded by Luther, acknowledges no source except the Gospels. It does not accept the Pope, either. It rejects such things as entire withdrawal from the world, matrimonial prohibition for the clergy, and hearing a confession.

Some time after Luther, Calvin came into the limelight and effected some reforms in Protestantism. He established an altogether novel Christian sect. [Jean (John) Calvin is French. He was born in 1509, and died in 1564, in Geneva]. The sect founded by Calvin is called (Calvinism). There is no place for overt (physical) worship in this sect. Nor are there such orders as papacy, bishopric, or priesthood. Calvinists do not believe that the host consumed at the Eucharist is exactly the same as the body or flesh of Isa 'alaihis-salam'. They give permission to worship the past Christian saints, [especially the Apostles]. They totally strip man of his irada-i-juz'iyya (partial will), and hold the belief that whether he will go to Paradise or Hell has already been predestined.

Afterwards, the sects founded by Luther and Calvin were disunited into various subsections. At least five hundred different Christian sects holding the name Protestantism exist in Germany and England today.

As these historical details show, today's Christian tenets, such as trinity and three hypostases, making worships matters pertaining to the heart and soul alone, and consequently not worshipping in a manner as prescribed by the overt commandments of the Bible, are not true, dependable Biblical commandments. They are things fabricated afterwards because of various doubts or for differing purposes or established by the clergy at ecclesiastical assemblies. Great credal discrepancies have come into existence between Catholics and Protestants in the essentials of Christianity, such as the sacrament of (the Eucharist), the Pope's being caliph of Isa 'alaihis- salam' and the representative of Peter, sacredness of the past saints, i.e. the Apostles, various diets and feasts, bogus pictures of Mary with, as it were, Jesus in her arms, worshipping portraits and icons, priests' redeeming sinners from their sins and selling people places in Paradise [in return for a certain amount of money]. The disparities between them have reached such an extent that each party deserves Hell according to the other. According to some other priests, on the other hand, inasmuch as the allegation of deserving Hell made by each party against the other is an inspiration of the Holy Spirit as is believed by both Protestants and Catholics, both parties are true to their allegation. [Both Catholics and Protestants deserve Hell].

The controversies about the Three Hypostases that started two hundred and fifty years after the beginning of Christianity and which have continued among various churches up to our time are beyond calculable numbers. Nevertheless, all Christian sects agree in the doctrine that God is an Essence composed of Three Persons, which are (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). Each sect holds a different belief as to the natures of these three Essences, the nature of their unity and how they are related with one another. According to some of them, by 'three hypostases', 'three attributes of One Essential Person' is meant, not 'three distinct Persons'. According to some, the hypostasis of knowledge is (Logos), which has united with Christ's body. It is a perfect unity, like the uniting of water with wine. According to the Melekaniyya (Melchite) sect, it is like the shining of the sun on crystalline glass. According to the Nestorians, God has changed into flesh and blood and become Christ. According to the Yaqubiyya (Jacobite or Monophysite) sect, it is God's appearing in man. This sort of appearing is like the appearing of an angel in human guise. According to other sects, God has united with man like the uniting of the nafs (self) with the body. Thus, things that could never be accepted by reason or logic have been inserted into the [Nazarene] religion of Isa 'alaihis-salam'. It has been proven by the 'Ulama (savants) of Islam's knowledge of Kalam and by owners of sagacity that these creeds are wrong. Those who need more scientific details about the matter may have recourse to the books of those savants. Being unable to answer the responses and objections directed to them in the knowledge of Kalam, Protestants have had no other way than saying, "This is one of the divine secrets which the human mind falls short of comprehending." It goes without saying what this answer would be worth in the eyes of people of wisdom.

Notwithstanding all these facts, some outstanding Protestants have asserted that Qur'an al-karim (May Allahu ta'ala protect us from believing or saying so) is not a true heavenly book because the doctrine of trinity does not exist in Qur'an al-karim. It is like the case of a hashish addict who enters a jeweller's shop and asks for some hashish. Upon the shopkeeper's answering that they do not hold any sort of narcotics and that all their wares are precious articles like jewels, he says, "Then you are not a real tradesman." This statement of Protestants; like their other statements, is of no value.
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