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BREAKING NEWS :: NASA Reveals 'Astrobiology Discovery' + The Gulf of Mexico Biofuel Connection - Printable Version

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BREAKING NEWS :: NASA Reveals 'Astrobiology Discovery' + The Gulf of Mexico Biofuel Connection - drummer - 12-01-2010

NASA will hold a news conference at 2 p.m. EST on
Thursday, Dec. 2, to discuss an astrobiology finding that will impact the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life. Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe.

The news conference will be held at the NASA Headquarters auditorium at 300 E St. SW, in Washington. It will be broadcast live on NASA Television and streamed on the agency's website at http://www.nasa.gov.

http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2010/nov/HQ_M10-167_Astrobiology.html




RE: NASA to Reveal 'Astrobiology Discovery' Thursday - Dunamis - 12-02-2010

Keep us updated man! Sounds very interesting. I hope it's not just small news though...


RE: NASA to Reveal 'Astrobiology Discovery' Thursday - JFK - 12-02-2010

Can someone please record this and put it on the tracker ?


RE: NASA to Reveal 'Astrobiology Discovery' Thursday - deen - 12-02-2010

Does anyone have any info as to what it is they found? Im sure its past 2pm est by now, not sure of time im over in UK waiting but website doesbt seem to have any other updates...


RE: NASA to Reveal 'Astrobiology Discovery' Thursday - FastTadpole - 12-03-2010

Quote:NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built With Toxic Chemical
12.02.10

Felisa Wolfe-Simon processing mud from Mono Lake to inoculate media to grow microbes on arsenic Felisa Wolfe-Simon processing mud from Mono Lake to inoculate media to grow microbes on arsenic.
Click photo for larger image.

NASA-funded astrobiology research has changed the fundamental knowledge about what comprises all known life on Earth.

Researchers conducting tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California have discovered the first known microorganism on Earth able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic. The microorganism substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components.

"The definition of life has just expanded," said Ed Weiler, NASA's associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at the agency's Headquarters in Washington. "As we pursue our efforts to seek signs of life in the solar system, we have to think more broadly, more diversely and consider life as we do not know it."

This finding of an alternative biochemistry makeup will alter biology textbooks and expand the scope of the search for life beyond Earth. The research is published in this week's edition of Science Express.

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are the six basic building blocks of all known forms of life on Earth. Phosphorus is part of the chemical backbone of DNA and RNA, the structures that carry genetic instructions for life, and is considered an essential element for all living cells.

Phosphorus is a central component of the energy-carrying molecule in all cells (adenosine triphosphate) and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Arsenic, which is chemically similar to phosphorus, is poisonous for most life on Earth. Arsenic disrupts metabolic pathways because chemically it behaves similarly to phosphate.

"We know that some microbes can breathe arsenic, but what we've found is a microbe doing something new -- building parts of itself out of arsenic," said Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA Astrobiology Research Fellow in residence at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., and the research team's lead scientist. "If something here on Earth can do something so unexpected, what else can life do that we haven't seen yet?"

The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria. In the laboratory, the researchers successfully grew microbes from the lake on a diet that was very lean on phosphorus, but included generous helpings of arsenic. When researchers removed the phosphorus and replaced it with arsenic the microbes continued to grow. Subsequent analyses indicated that the arsenic was being used to produce the building blocks of new GFAJ-1 cells.

The key issue the researchers investigated was when the microbe was grown on arsenic did the arsenic actually became incorporated into the organisms' vital biochemical machinery, such as DNA, proteins and the cell membranes. A variety of sophisticated laboratory techniques was used to determine where the arsenic was incorporated.

The team chose to explore Mono Lake because of its unusual chemistry, especially its high salinity, high alkalinity, and high levels of arsenic. This chemistry is in part a result of Mono Lake's isolation from its sources of fresh water for 50 years.

The results of this study will inform ongoing research in many areas, including the study of Earth's evolution, organic chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, disease mitigation and Earth system research. These findings also will open up new frontiers in microbiology and other areas of research.

"The idea of alternative biochemistries for life is common in science fiction," said Carl Pilcher, director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the agency's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. "Until now a life form using arsenic as a building block was only theoretical, but now we know such life exists in Mono Lake."

The research team included scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona State University in Tempe, Ariz., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Penn., and the Stanford Synchroton Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, Calif.

NASA's Astrobiology Program in Washington contributed funding for the research through its Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology program and the NASA Astrobiology Institute. NASA's Astrobiology Program supports research into the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth.

For more information about the finding and a complete list of researchers, visit: http://astrobiology.nasa.gov
http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/astrobiology_toxic_chemical.html

OK - so this is the only place these Gammaproteobacteria (GFAJ-1) microbes exist? Out of nowhere? Right before a HUGE climate summit.

It is very possible that GFAJ-1 was ENGINEERED not discovered!

The conditions are almost EXACTLY the same as the Gulf of Mexico has been engineered for.

* Volcanic Activity from Asphalt volcanoes was set off by the drilling into the volcanic fault

* Huge amounts of arsenic were released

* Arsenic continues to build with the release of oil impeding uptake by goethite

* Corexit spill killed marine life making the spill seem a much worse kill factor

* Did they really stop the leak? Did they use a nuke?

* Tons of phosphates are being dumped into the ocean because of fertilizers from corn and soy farming

* Phosphates contribute to huge algal blooms (biofuel in of itself)

* NASA is deeply involved in collecting (some proven erroneous) IPCC source data, pro AGW theory papers and lots of literature and policy warning of catastrophic climate change.

* Barry Obama executed a 7 year moratorium late yesterday on Gulf Drilling for oil and natural gas

Sources:

Quote:Carboxylate platform for biofuel production.

* “The carboxylate platform utilizes a mixed microbial community to convert lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals and fuels.”1

Researchers from Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; have presented an article titled: “Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production.”

The researchers from Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; have also noted:

* “While much of the platform is well understood, little is known about its microbiology.”
* “Mesophilic (40 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) fermentations employing a sorghum feedstock and marine sediment inoculum were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing over the course of a 30-day incubation.”
* “The contrasting fermentation temperatures converted similar amounts of biomass, but the mesophilic community was significantly more productive, and the two temperatures differed significantly with respect to propionic and butyric acid production.”
* “Pyrotag sequencing revealed the presence of dynamic communities that responded rapidly to temperature and changed substantially over time.”
* “Both temperatures were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common.”
* “The species-rich mesophilic community harbored a variety of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and gamma-Proteobacteria, whereas the thermophilic community was composed mainly of Clostridia and Bacilli.”
* “Despite differences in composition and productivity, similar patterns of functional class dynamics were observed.”
* “Over time, organisms resembling known cellulose degraders decreased in abundance, while organisms resembling known xylose degraders increased.”
* “Improved understanding of the carboxylate platform’s microbiology will help refine platform performance and contribute to our growing knowledge regarding biomass conversion and biofuel production processes.”

(1) Hollister EB, Forrest AK, Wilkinson HH, Ebbole DJ, Malfatti SA, Tringe SG, Holtzapple MT, Gentry TJ: Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010 Sep;88(1):389-99. Epub 2010 Jul 31.
This entry was written by info@sujanani.com, posted on November 20, 2010 at 4:53 pm, filed under biofuel and tagged 16S rRNA
http://biotech.sujanani.com/news/?p=22004439

Mono Lake, California
In eastern California, along the western edge of the Great Basin—one of North America’s four largest deserts—sits Mono Lake. This salty remnant of a wetter era resides in a landscape of geologically young and potentially active volcanoes.
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8388

Oil Spills Raise Arsenic Levels in the Ocean, Says New Research
July 5, 2010
In the study, a team from Imperial College London has discovered that oil spills can partially block the ocean's natural filtration system and prevent this from cleaning arsenic out of the seawater. The researchers say their study sheds light on a new toxic threat from the Gulf of Mexico oil leak.

Arsenic occurs naturally in the ocean, but sediments on the sea floor filter it out of seawater, which keeps the levels of naturally occurring arsenic low. However, arsenic is also flushed into the ocean in wastewater from oil rigs and from accidental oil spills and leakages from underground oil reservoirs.

The team carried out experiments in the laboratory that mimicked conditions in the ocean, to see how the goethite binds to arsenic under natural conditions. They discovered that seawater alters the chemistry of goethite, where low pH levels in the water create a positive change on the surface of goethite sediments, making them attractive to the negatively charged arsenic.

However, the scientists discovered that when they added oil, this created a physical barrier, covering the goethite sediments, which prevented the arsenic in the oil from binding to them. The team also found that the oil changed the chemistry of the sediments, which weakened the attraction between the goethite and arsenic.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100702100144.htm

Gulf Volcano Warnings – Silence by the Press is Deafening – Gilbert Eriksen is Speaking Out
2010/06/20
http://www.morningliberty.com/2010/06/20/gulf-volcano-warnings-silence-by-the-press-is-deafening-gilbert-eriksen-is-speaking-out/

Asphalt volcanoes discovered
13. May 2004
Underwater volcanoes that spew asphalt instead of lava: they were discovered in the Gulf of Mexico during an expedition of the research vessel SONNE, led by Prof. Gerhard Bohrmann of the DFG Research Center Ocean Margins. On these volcanoes the multinational team of scientists encountered a previously unknown highly diverse ecosystem at a water depth of 3,000 meters. The prominent scientific journal Science reports the spectacular discovery in its issue of 14 May 2004.

Video recordings of this mound clearly show how the asphalt flowed out of the crater and down the slope. The pictures are amazingly reminiscent of lava from volcanoes on land. In addition, they are home to numerous life forms: tube worms, clams, fish, crabs, and - typical for deep-sea oases - abundant bacteria.

Asphalt is commonly presumed to be hostile to life. "Nevertheless, we have now found a complete ecosystem, not only living on the asphalt, but also apparently feeding on it," says Bohrmann. The amazing thing about this is: as a waste product asphalt no longer contains the usual basic deep-sea nutrients, methane and hydrogen sulfide. Almost all animals living in the deep sea feed on such chemical compounds because energy from the sun only penetrates the upper layer of the ocean. "Now we have to find out what compounds the organisms on the asphalt volcanoes use, and how the network of life in this system is interconnected."

The geologist of the DFG Research Center Ocean Margins is fascinated. "As a scientist, one rarely has the opportunity to discover things that are still completely unknown. The chance for discoveries of this magnitude exists only in the deep sea.

The researchers surmise that such asphalt volcanoes only occur in the Gulf of Mexico, but that they are abundant there, because the conditions required for their formation - deep water, salt diapirs below the seafloor, and the presence of oil deposits - are found only here.

http://www.marum.de/en/Asphalt_volcanoes_discovered.html

and now this just yesterday...

Obama orders seven year ban on Gulf oil drilling
* December 1st, 2010 4:46 pm ET
The undersea volcano unleashed by the faulty blowout preventer in the Deepwater Horizon rig has prompted President Obama to order a ban on drilling for oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico, according to an announcement from Interior Secretary Ken Salazar on Wednesday. Obama’s new order places a seven year ban on drilling for oil and natural gas within 125 miles of the Florida coast.
http://www.examiner.com/political-spin-in-national/obama-orders-seven-year-ban-on-gulf-oil-drilling

No fish, no shrimp, no oil -- just what will they do with the Gulf of Mexico?

I've been following this one for awhile..

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Dead Zone: The Algae Biofuels, and Carbon Exchange Agenda
http://concen.org/forum/showthread.php?tid=33554

More to come..

Anyone care to link names, funding?


RE: BREAKING NEWS :: NASA Reveals 'Astrobiology Discovery' + The Gulf of Mexico Biofuel Connection - FastTadpole - 12-03-2010

Seems GFAJ-1 is more environmentally engineered for the uptake of arsenic. Similar experiments had been done on liver cells by Bruce Lipton. This is in opposition to the genetic theory and more for nurture over nature in the outcome of environmental expression.

Quote:A bacterium known as strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae family of Gammaproteobacteria, proved to grow the best of the microbes from the lake, although not without changes from their normal development. The cells grown in the arsenic came out about 60 percent larger than cells grown with phosphorus, but with large, empty internal spaces.

By labeling the arsenic with radioactivity, the researchers were able to conclude that arsenic atoms had taken up position in the microbe’s DNA as well as in other molecules within it. Dr. Joyce, however, said that the experimenters had yet to provide a “smoking gun” that there was arsenic in the backbone of working DNA.

Despite this taste for arsenic, the authors also reported, the GFAJ-1 strain grew considerably better when provided with phosphorus, so in some ways they still prefer a phosphorus diet. Dr. Joyce, from his reading of the paper, concurred, pointing out that there was still some phosphorus in the bacterium even after all its force-feeding with arsenic. He described it as “clinging to every last phosphate molecule, and really living on the edge.”
Full Article: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/03/science/03arsenic.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all