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History of Food

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"Contents
Foreword to the New Expanded Edition by Betty Fussell xiii
Preface xv
List of Illustrations xvi
Acknowledgements xix
Introduction 1
Part I: Collecting Gathering Hunting
From Fire to the Pot 9
1 COLLECTING HONEY 14
Honey in the Golden Age 14
A Taste of Honey 16
Honey in Legend 18
Honey in Nature and History 21
Honey-Cakes, Spice-Bread, Gingerbread 28
Mead and Sacramental Intoxication 30
2 THE HISTORY OF GATHERING 35
The Ancient Pulses 35
The Symbolism of Beans 40
The Etymology (and Entomology) of Haricot Beans 41
The Holy War of Cassoulet 45
Soya: the Most Widely Eaten Plant in the World 46
Soya: Nutritional Facts and Figures 50
Mushrooms and Fungi 50
Roots 57
Table of Vegetable Nutrition 65
vii
Contents
3 HUNTING 66
The Great Days and the Decline of Game 66
Nutritional Facts and Figures about Game 79
Part II: Stock-breeding Arable Farming:
Meat, Milk, Cereals
The Evidence of Occupied Sites 83
4 THE HISTORY OF MEAT 85
The Birth of Stock-breeding and Society 85
Table of Areas of Origin of the First Domestic Animals 88
Meat-Eating: Likes and Dislikes 89
The Horse, the Spirit of Corn 95
Fat Oxen and Prosperous Butchers 95
5 THE HISTORY OF DAIRY PRODUCE 103
Cheese and Curds 103
Yoghurt: Fermented Milk 108
Butter: the Cream of the Milk 109
The Symbolism of Butter 113
6 THE HISTORY OF CEREALS 114
Cereals as Civilizers 114
The Symbolism of Wheat 117
Table of the Long March of Cereals 118
Imperialist Cereals 119
The Myth of Demeter 126
Everyday Cereals 127
Harvest Festivals 133
Strategic Cereals 134
Rice in the East 139
The Symbolism of Rice 149
Maize in the West 149
Why Maize is Called ‘I Have No More Gumbo’ 159
Why Corn-Cobs are Thin and Small 160
Zuni Legend of Maize Flour 160
From Porridge to Beer 161
The Technique of Brewing Beer 167
The History of Pasta 170
The History of Grain Spirits 176
Part III: The Three Sacramental Foods: Oil, Bread, Wine
The Fundamental Trinity 183
7 THE HISTORY OF OIL 185
Olive Oil 185
The Dietary History of Olive Oil 187
viii
Contents
Olive Oil in Legend and Symbolism 191
Making Olive Oil 193
Other Oils 196
Margarine 199
8 THE HISTORY OF BREAD AND CAKES 201
The Bread on the Board 201
The Symbolism of Bread and Cakes 207
Four Stages in the Development of Bread-Making 209
The Taste of Bread 210
The Technique of Bread-Making 214
Our Daily Bread 215
Special Cakes for Sundays 218
9 THE HISTORY OF WINE 223
From the Vine to Wine 223
Dessert Grapes 230
The Technique of Wine-Making 231
The Symbolism of Wine 233
The Legend of Dionysus 235
The Proper Use of Wine 236
Cooking with Wine 249
Wine and God 251
A Wine of Revolution 258
Part IV: The Economy of the Markets
The Centre of the City 265
10 THE HISTORY OF FISH 268
The Fish of the Ancient World 268
A Who’s Who of Sea Fish 272
The Salmonidae: a family of aristocrats 273
Fishing in Legend 277
Extravagance and Economy in Eating Fish 277
The Symbolism of Fish 281
Uses for Less Profitable Fish 284
The Providential Nature of Salt Fish 287
Drying, Salting and Smoking Fish; an Age-Old Procedure 293
Table of the Nutritional values of Fish 294
Aquaculture and Pisciculture: Fish Farming 294
Blue Europe, or the Common Fish Market 298
From Fishing to Our Plates 301
Table of the Economic and Social Potential of a Common Fishing Zone 302
11 THE HISTORY OF POULTRY 305
Facts about Poultry 305
Choosing Poultry 312
ix
Contents
The Symbolism of Poultry 319
Eggs: their Uses and Customs 322
Part V: Luxury Foods
The Revels of the Gauls 333
12 TREASURES FROM THE SEA 338
The History of Garum 338
The History of Caviare 339
A Who’s Who of caviare 345
How to Keep Caviare Happy 347
The History of Shellfish and Crustaceans 348
Facts about Crustaceans 356
The History of Shellfish-Farming 359
The Biology of the Oyster 366
The Biology of the Mussel 368
13 THE TREASURE OF THE FORESTS 369
The History of Pork and Charcuterie 369
About Ham 378
Sausages 381
The Symbolism of the Pig 384
The History of Foie Gras 385
Facts about Foie Gras 392
The Symbolism of Liver 393
The History of Truffles 394
Part VI: The Era of the Merchants
Making a Good Profit 403
14 AN ESSENTIAL FOOD 414
The History of Salt 414
The Symbolism of Salt 429
The Technique of Winning Salt 430
15 SPICE AT ANY PRICE 433
About Spices 433
The Secrets of Spices 437
Cinnamon 439
Pepper 441
Ginger 446
Turmeric and Cardamom 450
Cloves 453
The Great Trading Companies 458
Nutmeg and Mace 461
Chillies and Sweet Peppers 464
Aromatics and the Imagination 467
x
Contents
Saffron 467
Vanilla 471
Everyday Condiments and Herbs 473
Herbs 478
The Proper Use of Spices, Aromatics and Condiments 481
The Grocer’s Trade 488
Part VII: New Needs: Sugar, Chocolate, Coffee, Tea
Gluttony and Greed for Gain 493
16 THE LURE OF SUGAR 496
Rum, A Sugar Spirit 504
The Legend of Sugar 505
17 CONFECTIONERY AND PRESERVES 507
18 CHOCOLATE AND DIVINITY 515
Definitions of Chocolate 519
19 COFFEE AND POLITICS 521
Coffee from the Islands 530
Coffee in Legend 532
20 TEA AND PHILOSOPHY 535
Tea in Legend 543
The Symbolism of Tea 544
Part VIII: Orchards and Kitchen Gardens
Instructions for the Garden 547
21 THE TRADITION OF FRUITS 558
The Symbolism of the Apple 558
Grafting 561
Dessert Apples 562
Table of Production of Apples in EC Countries, 1982–3 564
Cider and Calvados 567
Pears 572
Plums 575
Peaches 578
The Peach in Legend 581
Apricots 582
The Dietetics of Apricots 584
Cherries 584
The Dietetics of Cherries 585
Strawberries 586
Melons 590
Oranges 593
Growing and Selling Oranges 600
xi
Contents
A Who’s Who of Oranges 602
Grapefruit 602
Figs 603
The Symbolism of Figs and The Fig Tree 607
Dates 607
Pineapples 609
Bananas 610
Avocados 612
22 THE EVOLUTION OF VEGETABLES 620
Cabbages 622
Cauliflowers 625
Salad 626
Chicory and Endive 629
Watercress 630
Asparagus 631
Growing Asparagus 633
Artichokes 636
Tomatoes 637
23 THE POTATO REVOLUTION 641
Sweet Chestnuts 645
Potatoes 646
Soufflé Potatoes 653
Part IX: Science and Conscience in the Diet
The Hows and Whys of Quality 659
24 PRESERVING BY HEAT 662
Canned Sardines 668
The Technique of Canning 670
Food Preservation 671
Pasteurized Milk 673
25 PRESERVING BY COLD 675
Quick-Freezing 677
26 THE REASSURANCE OF DIETETICS 680
Vitamins 683
Chronology of Dietary Progress 684
27 A REASSURING FUTURE 690
Notes 706
Select Bibliography of Recent English-Language Works 723
Bibliography to Original Edition 729
Index 733"