Very abstract questions by me
If you can wrap your mind around it...
By Peter James Carroll
Warning , Hypothesis Under Continuous Construction!
"DON'T QUANTISE GRAVITY, GEOMETRICATE THE QUANTA!"
The development of a unified theory which can model all of the phenomena currently described by both quantum theories and the special and general theories of relativity presents humanity with one of its greatest intellectual challenges. For over half a century the expected marriage between an incomplete understanding of fundamental particles and an incomplete understanding of gravity has remained overdue.
A unified theory would probably complete our understanding of both fundamental particles and gravity and would almost certainly tell us a great deal about cosmology and the mechanisms which may or may not allow the construction of starships. The hypotheses advanced in the following paper argue for a description of all fundamental "forces" as spins subtending curvatures within a six dimensional spacetime, consisting of three spatial and three temporal dimensions. Mach's Principle also enters the argument in support of the hypotheses that this universe has not expanded and does not expand.
The model of fundamental particles, and their associated field and wave/particle boson interactions presented in this paper, seeks to augment the standard model by describing particles as singularities in a six dimensional space-time. This model provides a number of testable predictions within current or near future experimental capabilities. The belief that we can explain the behaviour of the universe with simple formulae of algebra/geometry such as F=ma or E=mc^2 informs this model. Such inelegant manifestations of mathematics as non-integral factors do not appear in it, despite their facility in its construction. Thus whilst quantitative data have elucidated qualitative mechanisms, only the latter, which interest the author, appear in their simplest algebraic form here.
2. The Hyperwarp 6D model.
If a particle exhibits multiple properties these properties must arise from as yet more fundamental constituents or from the spacetime geometry of the particle.
If, like space, time has three dimensions, and all spatial dimensions have equal orthogonality to all temporal dimensions, then fundamental particles could have the following spins and spacetime geometries to account for their various properties.
Spins about various axes, and particle properties. Where s1, s2, s3 = spatial axes, t1, t2, t3 = temporal axes.
Spin Axis Spin Plane Particle Property
s1 s2s3 Chiral Spin, parallel, antiparallel, or transverse to propagation
Colour 'charge', + or - R, G, B
Electroweak 'charge', + or - 1, 2, 3
Generational 'charge', + or - 1, 2, 3
Four codes for particle properties, S, spin, C, colour, E, electroweak, and G, generation, will frequently appear in the remainder of this paper.
Three dimensional time need not conflict with our experiences and observations, rather it may provide a basis for the probabilistic behaviour of matter and energy. See 8a. To simplify this paper numerically, the smallest unit of fundamental fermion chiral spin, h / 4 pi will appear as 1 rather than the conventional 1/2, and the electroweak charge on an electron will appear as -3 instead of the conventional -1, and thus the electroweak charges on quarks and anti-quarks will appear as -1 or 2 and 1 or -2 respectively.
The application of five principles to the spacetime configurations shown in fig.1 can explain the manifestation and much of the behaviour of all observed particles to date:-
a) Spin Conservation. All particle reactions conserve all spins. Chiral spins can interconvert with orbital angular momenta.
B)Phenomenisation. A fundamental particle must have both S and G spins to exist.
c) T axis Neutrality. All particles must have +3, or -3, or 0, t-axis spins. Since both C and E "charges" have t axes, we thus only observe C1 E-1 and C1 E2 quarks and C-1 E1 and C-1 E-2 anti-quarks. Amongst the leptons we thus observe only the C0 E0 neutrinos and the C0 E-3 electrons, and C0 E3 positrons. This principle also generates predictions, see 9. This principle thus defines the types of particle that can exist in each generation and it has a further effect on colour bearing particles. The colour spins carry more energy than the electroweak spins, and colour bearing particles will configure themselves together to achieve a further 'colour t axis neutrality' thus producing the familiar baryon quark triplet, with 3 colour t axes (or -3 in the case of anti-quarks) and meson quark anti-quark doublets with 0 colour t axes. A third and weaker manifestation of t axis neutrality occurs in respect to electroweak t axes in baryons, in that only baryons with electroweak charges of 0, 3 or -3 such as neutrons and protons and exhibit stability.
d) Gravitation arises from the total spacetime distortions of S,C, E, and G spins and from the orbital angular momentum, in short from the total energy. Colour and electroweak spins also subtend higher dimensional spacetime distortions which interact only with themselves.
e) Bosons consist of 'particle / anti-particle' components that can carry any amount of mass / energy as orbital angular momentum. The anti-particle components of bosons correspond to the normally discarded advanced wave solutions to Maxwell's equations. Bosons arise as distortions in fields when fermions undergo quantum jumps and accelerations.
3.Particle Properties in the Hyperwarp 6D model
A brief description follows of the types of spin as shown in fig.1.
a) Chiral spin S.
The purely spatial spin of a particle could appear in Cartesian co-ordinates as z / xy, x / yz, or y /xz. Space has no preferred direction but we conventionally designate the direction of measurement / observation / interaction as z. Obviously a particle can only have a single purely spatial spin, designated s1 / s2 s3, in this model. At light speed a particles chiral spin must align parallel or anti parallel to the direction of travel, at sub-light speeds it can orient itself transversely as well. All fermions (except neutrinos) can have + or - (right or left handed) chiral spins. In neutrinos and anti-neutrinos chirality differentiates between particle and anti-particle. Note that in this model chiral spin undergoes spatial but not temporal reversal. The neutrino component of charged weak bosons dictates their chirality. Other bosons can have both chiralities.
B)Colour Spin, C.
A particle can have only one of the three possible purely temporal spins, t1 / t2 t3, t2 / t1 t3, or t3 / t1 t2 which in quantum chromodynamics carry the arbitrary designations in no particular order, of red, green, and blue or their anti-colours for anti-particles. Because of the temporal axis, colour charge undergoes temporal , but not spatial reversal with anti-particles carrying anti-spin and hence anti-colour.
c) Electroweak Spin, E.
A particle can have (within the limits of 't' axis neutrality) spin of the spatial plane (defined by the choice of the chiral axis), about each of the temporal axes. Having temporal axes, E undergoes temporal, but not spatial reversal to yield anti-particles of opposite electroweak charge.
d) Generational Spin, G.
A particle can have spin of a temporal plane (defined by the choice of the colour axis, if present) about each of the spatial axes. Having spatial axes, G undergoes spatial reversal not temporal reversal. Both particles and antiparticles can have G spin of either type. To account for the experimentally observed behaviour of the phenomena of mass and gravity we can make the following assumption:- All spins subtend a spacetime curvature in proportion to the energy they embody. All so called "fields" consist of such curvatures. Colour and electroweak spins also subtend higher dimensional curvatures which interact only with themselves. The overall basic spacetime curvature (gravity) resists the acceleration and movement of all forms of mass and energy. This particular expression of Mach's Principle can account for the apparent equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass and explain the phenomena currently within the models of special and general relativity. See section 6 particle mass, gravity, and Mach's Principle.
4. Apparent Asymmetries.
A universe with a net total of zero spins has great philosophical elegance, yet the universe appears to contain little anti-matter. Now t-axis neutrality energetically favours t +3 or t -3 configurations over t 0 configurations achieved by t +1 plus t -1. (Thus d quarks undergo beta decay into u quarks and free neutrons decay into protons). The problem of the apparent lack of anti-matter basically reduces to the lack of anti-colour spins. The universe has taken the lower energy route in splitting symmetry as R+G+B=O rather than C+ plus C- =O. We inhabit a colour neutral and electrically neutral universe, that does not require an equal mass of antimatter for neutrality.
The matter dominated universe still has overall G-spin neutrality due to the spatial reversibility of G. The Universe does not contain much antimatter for the same reason it contains few 2nd and 3rd generation particles, energy considerations do not favour it.
5. Particles, Fields, and Bosons in the Hyperwarp 6D model.
Spinwarp Type Fermion Field Boson
1 Neutrino Graviton?
S C E G S C E G
-1 1,2,3 &2 @1
2 Forbidden Electroweak Photon
S C E G
&2 @1 @1
3 Forbidden Electroweak ???????????????
4 Electron Electroweak Z Boson
S C E G S C E G
&1 -3 1,2,3 &2 @3 @1
S C E G
&2 &3 @1
5 Forbidden Colour Gluon
S C E G
&2 @1 @1
6 Quark Type 1 Colour / Electroweak (mesons)
S C E G
&1 1 -1 1,2,3
7 Quark Type 2 Colour / Electroweak (mesons)
S C E G
&1 1 2 1,2,3
KEY.. S, C, E, G indicate chiral, colour, electroweak, and generational spins, as in fig.1. & indicates plus or minus. @ indicates plus and minus existing together in a condition of non-annihilatory cancellation in bosons and mesons. Anti-neutrinos have an opposite chiral spin to neutrinos, other anti-fermions (not shown) have opposite C & E spins to the corresponding fermions. Mesons comprise quark/antiquark pairs, many combinations exist, and they may play some role in binding nucleons.
Many mesons do not have the S&2,G@1 characteristics of bosons, nor do they behave quite like bosons.This model does not exclude type 3 bosons, some evidence exists for a boson of this type, see Confirmation page. The Z boson has components corresponding to an electron / position pair whilst the W- and W+ bosons have components equivalent to electron / anti-neutrino and position / neutrino pairs respectively. All weak bosons carry a large mass / energy in the form of orbital angular momentum between particle and anti-particle components because of the highly energetic processes that create them, and they all couple strongly with elecroweak fields, thus severely restricting their range. Gluons, as true wave / particle bosons would have prodigious mass / energies and would interact very strongly with strong nuclear fields and thus we observe only the field manifestation. Some Weak force bosons may carry G&2 or perhaps other values, 8d.
6. Particle Mass, Gravity, Mach's Principle, & Cosmology.
Various numerical factors such as "2" and "pi" do not appear in the following order of magnitude equations for the sake of simplicity. Inertial mass, mi, probably differs from gravitational mass, mg, to the extent that:
mi = mg(MG/Lc^2) (1-v^2/c^2)^-1/2 (Gm/rc^2)^1/2
where M and L represent the mass and length of the universe, and m and r represent the mass and distance of any significant local mass concentration. The three right hand brackets represent Machian and Special and General relativistic effects. However gravitational "forces" remain stubbornly proportional to the total energy contained in a body.
Kaluza-Klien theory can model the electroweak "force" in 5D but at the expense of invoking a "compactified" fourth spatial dimension. Hyperwarp 6D suggests that an extra temporal dimension can model the electroweak "force" and that a third temporal dimension can include the strong nuclear or colour "force" as well.
A geometrication of the three fields would remove the grotesque and non-falsifiable hypothesis of "virtual bosons", but would allow the retention of real bosons as wavelike particle/antiparticle distortions of spacetime fields. It seems intriguing that current estimates of M and L allow G and c to mutually define each other by the formulae.
and interesting that the natural unit of acceleration GM/L^2, of 10^-11 m/s should have precisely the value to redshift to oblivion, light from the temporal horizon of this universe at 10^18 sec. We presumably thus occupy a black hole whose size remains constant and whose internal structure also conforms to the m/l=c^2/G equation in the sense that mp/lp=c^2/G where mp=Planck mass, and lp=Planck length.
This suggests that fundamental particles have an asymptotic structure and that we inhabit a universe of holes or singularities, within a hole. Conventional theory predicts the formation of a singularity within a black hole. Perhaps what we call fundamental particles represent the many singularities which have formed inside the black hole of this universe.
7. Further Considerations upon Boson Structure and Behaviour
Fields consist of the spacetime curvature centred on fermions that extends indefinitely from fermions in the case of electromagnetism and gravity, but only acts at close range for the colour force. Bosons consist of distortions in such fields having the configuration of particle anti-particle pairs. Fields exist non locally as curvatures of space-time, but bosons can only propagate through them as waves at light speed or less. When a fermion quantum jumps or receives an acceleration across a spatial interval, it creates a boson with a wavelength proportional to the jump energy.
A quantum jump somehow creates a particle/antiparticle configuration with a double spin and concealed (+AND -) spacetime curvatures which exhibit no overall "charges" except for the w+&-. Some sort of action-reaction mechanism seems to operate here. However, charged weak bosons and possibly leptoquarks that have asymmetric particle anti-particle components can still exhibit colour or electroweak charge.
As localised field distortions bosons must follow the paths of their fields. Bosons can carry any amount of energy in the form of orbital angular momentum between the particle and anti-particle components. This orbital angular motion creates the phenomena of wavelength and frequency in bosons. The wavelike behaviour of bosons arises from the constraint that they travel as distortions in non local fields. Fields as spacetime curvatures can have attractive or repulsive effects, real bosons always have repulsive effects, and virtual bosons do not exist.
8. Problems and Questions Arising .
a) Three dimensional time need not create any conflict with experience and observation. We can only perceive and hence measure infinitesimally small 'instants of now', and then string them together by effort of memory and expectation, or by records and calculation, to create an apparent time 'line'. However, such a time line could arise from selecting points from within a three dimensional matrix. Indeed the probabilistic nature of reality, which appears with respect to the indeterminate future of personal experience, and with respect to the indeterminate future and past in the quantum behaviour of particles, (if you accept the sum-over histories model), suggests that reality evolves through a three dimensional rather than a linear time frame.
It means very little to say that an electron, for example, can 'be' in two places at once or even that an electron 'was' in two places at once. Rather we should perhaps say that electrons behave as though more than one history seems to have contributed to their behaviour at the moment of observation /interaction.
The whole problem of the collapse of wave functions may find a resolution based on the idea that whilst particles can only interact at a definite point in time, their history and future requires three rather than one temporal co-ordinates to give a complete specification.
The two 'extra' dimensions of time suggested in this model, which in effect provide a plane of time (or possibility) orthogonal to linear classical relativistic time, as we commonly conceptualise it, may offer scope for the construction of a more general expression of Heisenburg's uncertainty principle. Indeed the 'imaginary' factors that yield appropriate probabilistic values in Schrodinger's wave equations suggest that the universe has more dimensions than the conventional four.
B)The Exclusion Principle The Pauli exclusion principle, which partially models the atomic architecture and differentiates between the behaviour of fermions and bosons associated with them, appears in the Hyperwarp 6D model as follows; No two fermions with identical or completely opposite spins and curvatures can occupy the same quantum state. Now, if t-spin neutrality alone can confine quarks in baryons then we do not need three different 'colours' and anti-colours in the strong nuclear field and nor do we need eight types of gluon to model the behaviour of baryons or mesons. At the time of writing no convincing model seems to exist to explain inter-nucleon forces in terms of either a multi-colour or a single colour strong nuclear inter-quark field. If the chiral spin of the two u quarks in the proton and the two d quarks in the neutron have anti-parallel alignments then both particles can obey the exclusion principle in their lowest energy chiral spin1 states. Other less stable baryon configurations then do violate the exclusion principle but only for exceedingly short times commensurate with uncertainty limits. Bosons such as the photon do not interact with each other or resist each others passage as they have a net of zero spacetime curvatures, apart from their chiral spins.
c) Singularities and Renormalisation The infinities that the standard theory re-normalises away also appear in the Hyperwarp 6D model in the sense that the warpage of 6D space-time becomes theoretically infinite if we calculate it for zero dimensional point sources. However whenever m/l exceeds 10^27 kg/m a body becomes a black hole and perhaps a singularity as well. We have a philosophical / mathematical paradox or dilemma here, if we perform the questionable operation of division by zero we obtain infinity, on the other hand, we should perhaps accept this procedure just this once, and only once, in respect of the primeval nature of fundamental particles as six dimensional space-time singularities.
d) Apparent Weak Force Anomalies Failure to account for the directional nature of G leads to the apparent non conservation of generation in some weak interactions.
e) Generational Parity Reversal As a consequence of its spatial axis, generation,G, undergoes parity reversal,so reversing the direction of travel of a particle changes the sign of its generational charge, in the same way that its chiral spin becomes reversed. Thus a sufficiently energetic collisionbetween a neutrino and an antineutrino can produce a Z boson with S2 and G@1, but a collision between 2 neutrinos (or between 2 antineutrinos) can lead to an annihilation creating 2 photons or new pairs of neutrinos of other generations. Collisions between charged or colour bearing particles of the same type, for example 2 electrons, will not lead to annihilations as the charges or colours cannot cancel. However as any two particles of the same type can have opposite G if travelling in opposite directions, the universe can exhibit overall generational neutrality without antimatter.
Fig.3. Neutrino(n), and antineutrino(a) S and G values with respect to the directions > and <.
S G S G S G S G
-1 &1 +1 &1 +1 &1 -1 &1
9. Predictions from the Hyperwarp 6D model
a) No more generations of particles can exist. (Subject only to falsification)
B)No Higgs particle exists. (Subject only to falsification)
c) As it seems that no known natural process except, perhaps, neutron star or black hole collisions could cause a sufficiently large quantity of matter to undergo a sufficient acceleration to produce graviton bosons in detectable quantities, we shall never easily detect gravity waves (subject only to falsification).
d) The principle of t-axis neutrality does permit the existence of a number of exotic bosons corresponding to configurations such as :
d-quark/positron, or d-antiquark/electron or any type of quark/antineutrino or antiquark/neutrino
Within Hyperwarp 6D theory a "leptoquark boson" does not really represent a fifth force of nature, anymore than weak (W-, W+, or Zo) bosons represent anything other than a special case of electromagnetism. See Leptoquarks and Neutron Stars paper.
e) Spacetime singularities larger than fundamental particles do not exist. The quantisation of particle properties in terms of spacetime curvature implies a quantisation of spacetime itself and the top quark represents the maximum possible curvature at any point.
f) Neutrinos can annihilate against neutrinos in head on collisions. Antineutrinos can likewise annihilate against antineutrinos. Such collisions could create photon pairs or pairs of neutrinos of other generations. This controversial proposition lies open to experimental confirmation. It may also contribute a solution to the solar neutrino problem.
The hypotheses advanced above extend the general relativistic principle of a gravitational field as a distortion of space-time to the idea that all fields exist as various kinds of space-time distortion in which gravity has a special status in that it couples to all types of charge and spin and also resists, in Machian fashion, the acceleration of such spins and curvatures.
The three dimensional time hypothesis at least has the virtue of describing all known fundamental particles as arising from a single mechanism, spin, and it does not invoke swarms of as yet undetected particles. However, it differs from both the Copenhagen interpretation and the multiple universe model in that it implies that the probabilistic future and past of an event arise from extra temporal properties which we do not otherwise notice. Thus although events actually occur at a singular point in time, much as they do at a singular point in space, they appear to have multiple 'universe' pasts and futures. By analogy, a single frame high speed camera photograph of a cannon ball in flight gives no information about its trajectory. If, by an extension of the Minkowski metric, we consider the two temporal dimensions 'orthogonal' to the 'direction' of measurement as 'imaginary forms of imaginary time' in the mathematical sense then we can use real rather than imaginary numbers to describe them in which case they behave mathematically and for the purposes of visualisation, rather like an extra spatial plane.
What 'are' Fermions, Fields, and Bosons?
Science should not pretend to answer questions about ontology or meaning. The studious avoidance of concepts of 'is-ness' or 'being' in this paper reflects this principle. Science should only attempt to discern quantity, mechanism, similarity and difference.
This model suggests that we can usefully consider fermions as zero dimensional singularities in six dimensional space-time subtending curvature affecting other fermions at a distance (giving rise to what we call fields), and that the quantum jumping of fermions can cause energy to propagate across space-time, (giving rise to what we call bosons).
None of these phenomena submit to easy visual analogy. None of these phenomena resemble anything in the domain of our everyday experience. We can never know what they 'are', for they resemble only themselves, we can only strive to improve our models of what they seem to do, and what we can do with them. Curiously, whilst the prospects for detecting gravity waves look poor, all bosons including those of light, carry the graviton components of S& 2 and G@1. The non local aspect of fields accounts for the strange properties of light and does suggest a possible superluminal means of signalling.
However to accomplish this we would need to suddenly create or destroy electroweak charges and look for instantaneous mechanical effects on charged objects some distance away. As this model does not permit the creation or destruction of net charges, and simply moving charges around will not work, special relativity remains intact. Nevertheless any system can still contain or create some non-local information about its future and past. For example in double slit of beam splitter experiments the field detects the presence of two paths in advance and the photons more accordingly. Conversely if the photons have given an interference pattern then both paths will have admitted the field.
The author thanks those physicists who have offered insights and criticisms which have helped formulate the above hypotheses, and welcomes further criticism and collaboration, particularly to flesh out the algebra implied. In a later paper I hope to address the problems of quantum indeterminacy, superposition, and entanglement, in terms of three dimensional time. Superposition in particular may arise from 3D time pasts and futures which "collapse" to a 1D time present moment of observation, Null paths in 6 dimensions may allow entanglement and non locality.
Give me the judgment of balanced minds in preference to laws every time. Codes and manuals create patterned behavior. All patterned behavior tends to go unquestioned, gathering destructive momentum.
- Darwi Odrade